Chemical Mutagens

Chemical mutagens refer to the chemical agents that impose severe genetic abnormalities by directly or indirectly interacting with the DNA. DNA damage and alternations in nucleotide sequence prevalently result, after the treatment of nucleobases with base analogues and base altering agents. In addition, some chemical mutagens like intercalating agents may distort the DNA structure. Base …

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Laminar Airflow Chamber

A laminar airflow chamber refers to an enclosed cabinet, which is equipped with a HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filtered airflow system. It provides an aseptic environment to perform different experiments. Laminar airflow cabinet circulates unidirectional airflow with little or no turbulence at a uniform velocity between 0.3-0.5 m/s. It is extensively used in laboratories to …

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Rho Protein

Rho protein or Rho factor is a hexamer complex, which is ATP-dependent. Rho gene synthesizes rho protein to terminate the transcription process in prokaryotes. It is a protein possessing a single polypeptide chain with 419 amino acid residues. It functions as an RNA-binding protein, which primarily recognizes and binds to the rut site of the …

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Soil Microflora

Soil microflora contributes to the biological property of the soil, whose number and activity has a considerable impact on the soil system. The physical and chemical factors like pH, temperature, available moisture, and nutrients influence the growth and activity of the soil microflora. The root system in the soil also influences a wide range of …

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Fungal Cell Structure

A fungal cell commonly exists in two forms like moulds and yeasts. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms possessing fruiting bodies or spores. Unlike plants, they lack chlorophyll. Moulds are the type of fungus that appears filamentous and multicellular in appearance. Conversely, yeasts are the fungus-like cells that include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sporobolomyces roseus, etc. and seem unicellular …

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Guard Cells in Plants

Guard cells appear bean-shaped. They are found in pairs, and a cleft between them constitute the stomatal pore or stoma. Therefore, two guard cells enclosing stomatal aperture colloquially form a structure called stomata. Guard cells reside in the layer of the leaf epidermis. Stomatal guard cells perform two functional roles like influx or efflux carbon …

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