Nitrification

Nitrification is one of the crucial steps of the nitrogen cycle that occurs in soil. It is an aerobic process that involves two successive oxidation reactions, where the ammonia first oxidizes into nitrites, and then nitrites get oxidized into nitrates. It occurs in the soil, which includes members of autotrophic bacteria and archaea that facilitate …

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Prions

Prions are the sub-viral agents, which function as a proteinaceous infectious particle without a genomic RNA or DNA. These are the pathogens that not only cause severe fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases in humans and also in the animals. Prions are composed solely of PrP proteins. A term prion was coined by a scientist named …

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Viroids

Viroids are the sub-viral agents, which are smaller and infectious particles. These are somewhat similar like viruses but possesses some unique properties in its evolutionary origin, morphology and function. In the year 1917, Diener was the first scientist who discovered and termed the non-bacterial infectious plant pathogen as “Viroids”. Potato spindle tuber viroids (PSTV) was …

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Bacterial Growth Factors

Bacterial growth factors primarily include temperature, pH, salt concentration, light source, nutritional and gaseous requirement etc. Microorganisms live in diverse natural habitats such as atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The environmental and nutritional factors may favour or restrict the growth of microorganisms. Some microbes survive in extreme conditions or the changing environment, while few can not …

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Bacterial Flagella

Bacterial flagella can define as a locomotory apparatus that helps the bacteria to swim in the liquid nutrient medium. The bacteria possessing flagella refers as “Motile organisms or Flagellates” while those bacteria possessing flagella refers as “Non-motile organisms or Non-flagellates”. The width of bacterial flagella is much thinner and simpler than the eukaryotic flagella. The …

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Synchronous Culture

Synchronous culture is a technique of growing microorganisms at the same stage of their growth cycle in the controlled conditions. The results are made by one of the two methods (forced or mechanical selection methods). Forced techniques induce synchrony in microorganisms by shock treatment (temperature variation) or chemical treatment (nutritional difference). In contrast, the mechanical …

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B1 Vitamin

B1 Vitamin also refers to as “Thiamin” which is a kind of water-soluble vitamin and belongs to the family of the vitamin B complex. It is naturally present in a variety of foods like poultry products, fortified cereals, nuts etc. and also available as a dietary supplement. Thiamin is a coenzyme of vitamin B1 that …

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