Cloud Formation

Cloud formation can be seen in the earth’s homosphere. Nephology is the science of clouds. Clouds form by the condensation of water vapours into water droplets or ice crystals. Stratus, cirrus, stratocumulus, cumulus and cumulonimbus are common types of clouds in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere. Clouds in the stratosphere and mesosphere regions appear as …

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Difference between Colloid and Solution

The difference between colloid and solution is due to the properties like the solubility of particles, chemical nature and light scattering property. Colloids form when the particles (diameter from 1-1000 nm) are suspended in the dispersion medium. Oppositely, a true solution forms when the solute particles (diameter less than 1 nm) completely dissolve in the …

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Bacterial Transcription

Bacterial transcription occurs in the cytoplasm. Transcription merely refers to the mechanism of mRNA synthesis complementary to the DNA template strand. The whole process is regulated enzymatically by the RNA polymerase holoenzyme. The study of transcription in prokaryotes is quite simple than the eukaryotic transcription. Besides RNA polymerase, prokaryotic transcription uses some protein factors that …

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Seed Dispersal in Plants

Seed dispersal is an essential mechanism through which spermatophytes or seed-bearing plants disperse their seeds via dispersal agents like wind, water, fruit explosion and animals. Seeds disperse into new sites where they grow or germinate under favourable conditions. Seeds first grow into seedlings and later into well-developed plants and trees, thereby providing food, shelter and …

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Difference Between Anabolism and Catabolism

The difference between anabolism and catabolism is mainly characterized due to the difference in the types of substrates participating, types of products forming and the type of metabolic phase. Small monomers function as the substrate molecules in anabolism, whereas large and complex polymers serve as the substrate molecules in catabolism. Anabolic pathways typically form complex …

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Ex-Situ Biodiversity Conservation

Ex-situ biodiversity conservation refers to one of the approaches of conserving biodiversity that ensure the survival and sustainability of endangered plants and animal species outside their native habitat. It provides an artificial environment for diverse plants and animals similar to their actual growth conditions. It is also termed as “Off-site conservation”. Human activities and some …

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Lipid Aggregates

Lipid aggregates exist in varying forms starting from monolayer to structures like lamellar, tubular, cubic etc. The different structures or aggregates of lipids are known as phases. Largely, lipids are hydrophobic or water-insoluble. Lipids assemble into microscopic aggregates in the aqueous environment because of their amphipathic nature. They possess both hydrophilic (a polar head) and …

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Tropic Movements in Plants

Tropic movements in plants are the types of paratonic or induced movements. Paratonic movements include both tropic and nastic movements. In this module, we will only discuss the tropic movements in plants. Various external stimuli or environmental factors like light, gravity, water, temperature, and other factors influence tropic movement. The phenomenon of tropic movements in …

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