Voges Proskauer Test

Voges Proskauer test depends upon the formation of a neutral end product “Acetoin” in the MRVP media, which directly relies on the breakdown of glucose into an intermediate product “Pyruvic acid”. The pyruvic acid undergoes butylene glycol pathway and produces an end product named acetyl methyl carbinol or acetoin. It is named after the contribution …

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Methyl Red Test

Methyl red test differentiates whether the organism can undergo mixed acid fermentation or not, by the supply of glucose. Organisms that can ferment glucose will give positive MR test by producing a large amount of acid, and some organisms give negative MR test. It also helps to identify and classify between the different genera of …

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Indole Test

Indole test is a biochemical test that helps in the identification and classification of bacteria based on their tendency to decompose amino acid (Tryptophan) into a compound refers as “Indole”. It is a part of a biochemical method popularly known as IMViC test, where ‘I’ stands for indole test. Indole is one of the end …

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Bacterial Conjugation

Bacterial conjugation is a gene transfer mechanism, first introduced by the scientists named Lederberg and Tatum in the year 1946. The conjugation method was first studied in Escherichia coli. The formation of a conjugation tube is the characteristic feature in a conjugation mechanism. Instead of transduction and transformation, some bacteria passes the genetic information from …

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Mitotic Division

Mitotic division shows a pattern of cell division, where a single cell multiplies into two similar daughter cells by the segregation of newly replicated chromosomes in the nucleus. It is the intermediate phase of the cell division that activates after the G-2 interphase and ends with the stage of cytokinesis. Mitosis is a part of …

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Centrifugation Method

Centrifugation method is a process of separating different components or the suspended particles from the homogenous solution, by the practice of centrifugal force. It separates particles based on their physical properties like size, shape, density etc. and chemical properties like molecular weight and viscosity. A natural gravitational force can also concentrate particles but in an …

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Mendelian Inheritance

Mendelian inheritance is an approach that explains the traits are the characters inherit from one generation to another by the discrete units, which later termed as genes. It also refers as “Mendelism” which was introduced by the botanist or an Austrian monk, Gregor Johann Mendel. Sir Mendel was honoured as “Father of Genetics” for his …

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Shoot System of Plant

Shoot system of the plant is an outgrowth originates from the plumule of the seed’s embryo, above the ground. A term shoot is generally interchangeable with the stem, as it constitutes the major part of the shoot system. The morphology and physiology of the shoot system are more complex than the root system of the …

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