Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 belongs to the Vitamin-B group, which are of eight kinds of viz. vitamin B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, B-7, B-9, and B-12. Structurally, vitamin B-12 is the largest among all other vitamins of the same group. It performs a significant role in brain health, functioning of nervous system, and synthesis of RBC. Vitamin …

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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin, which belongs to the family of the vitamin B complex. It is named as “Vitamin B6” because it comprises six vitamers, namely pyridoxine, alcohol, pyridoxal, an aldehyde, pyridoxamine and 2, 5’-phosphate esters. Naturally, it is present as a glycosylated form in fruits and vegetables or exhibit reduced bioavailability. Pyridoxine …

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Production of Penicillin

The production of penicillin is used commercially to treat various infections caused by the gram-positive aerobic bacteria. Penicillin is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic that is found effective against many gram-positive bacteria, especially Streptococcus and Staphylococcus  species. There are approximately 100 penicillins that have been synthesized so far. For the production of penicillin, different strains of Penicillium …

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Flagella Staining

Flagella staining is a technique which examines the presence and arrangement of bacterial flagella under the microscope. It is a specialized staining method, which requires a combination of special reagents to stain the bacterial flagella. The flagella appears as a narrow appendages, which cannot be visualized by employing common stains. Therefore, the flagella staining makes …

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Negative Staining

Negative staining also refers to as “Indirect staining”. This technique helps to visualize various microorganisms by using both light and electron microscopy. In bright field microscopy, the method of indirect staining involves the use of the liquid medium (black coloured dyes) like Nigrosin and India ink that stains the background, leaving the bacteria unstained. But, …

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Chlamydia

Chlamydia considers as the obligate parasites and sometimes refers as “Large viruses”. These are true bacteria and differ from the virus by many ways. Like bacteria, chlamydia also possesses both DNA and RNA. These multiply by binary fission, whereas viruses never do so. Chlamydia possesses bacterial cell type incorporated with peptidoglycan probably containing mumaric acid. …

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Difference Between Selective and Differential Media

The difference between selective and differential media is mainly due to the following factors: Intended use of the media: The purpose of both selective and differential media differs. A selective media only permits the development of particular organisms, while a differential media discerns one species of the organism from the other growing on the similar …

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MacConkey Agar Media

MacConkey agar media was first introduced by a scientist named Alfred Theodore MacConkey in the year 1890s. It is primarily exercised for the isolation and differentiation of the non-fastidious, gram-negative bacilli belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Previously, it was first considered as “Solid differential media”. But now, it is practised as both liquid broth and …

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Pinocytosis

Pinocytosis is a kind of endocytic process. It can define as the cellular mechanism where the bilayer cell membrane invaginates to form a sac to uptake the extracellular fluids and solutes into the cytoplasm. Pinocytosis is a spontaneous endocytic process which occurs in almost all the cells. It is prevalent in eukaryotes. It also refers …

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Phagocytosis

Phagocytosis is a method of endocytosis. It can define as the cellular mechanism where the vesicles form by the invagination of the plasma membrane and cause internalization of the extracellular contents into the cell. Internalization is a process where a plasma membrane undergoes successive invagination to form membrane-bound vesicles that later detach from the cell …

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