Zoology

Difference Between Pectoral and Pelvic Girdle

The difference between pectoral and pelvic girdle is mainly due to the following factors like the type of bones contributing to the formation, association of bones and articulations. Collar bone (clavicle) and the shoulder blade (scapula) are the two types of bones contributing to shoulder muscle or pectoral girdle formation. Hip or coxal bones solely …

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Human Skin Layers

Human skin layers constitute the body’s outer covering that shields the internal cells, tissues, and organs against the changing environment, allergens, and pathogens. Human skin is the largest organ among the other components of the integumentary system. Besides, its immunity role, skin regulates body temperature, synthesis of vitamin-D, and sensation of touch, heat, pressure etc. …

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Amitosis Cell Division

Amitosis cell division is a form of direct cell multiplication where the nuclear and cytoplasmic contents of parent cell split between the two daughter cells via a simple cell constriction. It is a kind of growth and multiplication process that predominantly occurs in the acellular or unicellular organisms such as algae, bacteria, cyanobacteria, protozoans and …

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Life Cycle of Plasmodium Species

The life cycle of Plasmodium species generally exist within the two phases (asexual and sexual) or require two living hosts (vertebrates and mosquito). Plasmodium’s asexual phase begins within the female Anopheles mosquito’s stomach, while the sexual phase starts within the human beings’ hepatic cells. Thus, the life cycle of Plasmodium mainly involves two hosts, namely …

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Phylum Porifera

Phylum Porifera is placed in the kingdom Animalia , whose members are metazoans having a cellular organization. Porifera is a term, which merely refers as pore bearers that include “Poriferans” or pore bearing animals. There are approximately 5000 species in a phylum Porifera. Initially, they were thought to be in the Plantae kingdom, because of …

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Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis occurs in a reverse manner of glycolysis, which produces glucose by the precursors like pyruvate, lactate, glucogenic amino acids. It is sometimes called Neoglucogenesis. It is a ubiquitous or universal pathway, which occurs in humans, animals, plants, fungi and other living organisms. Gluconeogenesis has only three irreversible steps opposite to the glycolysis pathway, while …

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Cytoplasmic Inheritance

Cytoplasmic inheritance also termed as maternal inheritance or maternal effect. A cytoplasm comprises some autonomous organelles like mitochondria and plastids that possess their own genetic material. Mitochondria is present in both animal and plant cell, whereas plastids are only found in the plant cell. As we know, nucleic acids like DNA and RNA are responsible …

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