Zoology

Euglena Eyespot

Euglena eyespot is also called stigma or eyespot apparatus. It generally has a bright red colour appearance. Euglena is a unicellular photosynthetic organism having an eyespot apparatus as a light-receptive organelle. The red colour of the eyespot in Euglena is due to the presence of carotenoid pigment granules. In addition, it contains photoreceptors, structural, metabolic …

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Pedigree Analysis Chart

A pedigree analysis chart provides an important tool to study the inheritance of genes. It also gives precise information about the family members through diagrammatic representation. Sometimes, it is also known as the “family or genealogic tree“. A pedigree chart uses internationally accepted symbols, lines, numbers and letters To illustrate different individuals, their interrelationship, the …

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Difference Between Pectoral and Pelvic Girdle

The difference between pectoral and pelvic girdle is mainly due to the following factors like the type of bones contributing to the formation, association of bones and articulations. Collar bone (clavicle) and the shoulder blade (scapula) are the two types of bones contributing to shoulder muscle or pectoral girdle formation. Hip or coxal bones solely …

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Human Skin Layers

Human skin layers constitute the body’s outer covering that shields the internal cells, tissues, and organs against the changing environment, allergens, and pathogens. Human skin is the largest organ among the other components of the integumentary system. Besides, its immunity role, skin regulates body temperature, synthesis of vitamin-D, and sensation of touch, heat, pressure etc. …

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Amitosis Cell Division

Amitosis cell division is a form of direct cell multiplication where the nuclear and cytoplasmic contents of parent cell split between the two daughter cells via a simple cell constriction. It is a kind of growth and multiplication process that predominantly occurs in the acellular or unicellular organisms such as algae, bacteria, cyanobacteria, protozoans and …

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Life Cycle of Plasmodium Species

The life cycle of Plasmodium species generally exist within the two phases (asexual and sexual) or require two living hosts (vertebrates and mosquito). Plasmodium’s asexual phase begins within the female Anopheles mosquito’s stomach, while the sexual phase starts within the human beings’ hepatic cells. Thus, the life cycle of Plasmodium mainly involves two hosts, namely …

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Phylum Porifera

Phylum Porifera is placed in the kingdom Animalia and regarded as the oldest animal group. The term Porifera merely refers to pore bearers that include Poriferans or pore bearing animals. Poriferans or sponges possess small pores on their entire body and some wide openings. The members of Phylum Porifera are metazoans that show a cellular …

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Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis occurs in a reverse manner of glycolysis, which produces glucose by the precursors like pyruvate, lactate, glucogenic amino acids. It is sometimes called Neoglucogenesis. It is a ubiquitous or universal pathway, which occurs in humans, animals, plants, fungi and other living organisms. Gluconeogenesis has only three irreversible steps opposite the glycolysis pathway, while the …

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