Microbiology

PCR Amplification

PCR amplification is a popular method used to amplify the short DNA fragments, and also called “Molecular photocopying”. PCR is an acronym used for Polymerase chain reaction. Kerry Mullis was the first scientist, who introduced PCR with its remarkable applicability in genetic and molecular biology. It is a modern, inexpensive, and rapid (requires few hours) …

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Gel Filtration Chromatography

Gel filtration chromatography is one of the chromatography methods that facilitate particles separation based on the molecular size. It also called size exclusion and gel permeation chromatography. The source of particle separation is achieved by employing a filtration technique via gel beads. The gel beads possess specific porosity that retains or exclude the components with …

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Macrophages

Macrophages can define as the specialized immune cells that primarily recognize the foreign particles, and the cell remainings to facilitate phagocytosis. It differentiates from the monocytes. Besides phagocytosis, macrophages also play a functional role in presenting foreign particles to the T cells and also performs activation of other immune cells by releasing cytokines. Macrophages perform …

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T Cell

T cell or T lymphocyte is one of the immune cells that grow in the thymus gland. It performs a significant role in stimulating an immune response. T lymphocytes are different from the other immune cells by having a T-cell receptor on its cell surface. It originates from the stem cells of bone marrow as …

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Difference Between Cyclic and Noncyclic Photophosphorylation

Difference between cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation is mainly due to the following factors: Type of photosynthesis: Cyclic photophosphorylation occurs during anoxygenic photosynthesis while noncyclic photophosphorylation occurs in oxygenic photosynthesis. ATP synthesis: ATP synthesis during the cyclic electron flow of anoxygenic photosynthesis is known as cyclic photophosphorylation. ATP production during the noncyclic electron flow of oxygenic …

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Reaction Centre

Reaction centre can define as the site of photosynthetic reactions. Chlorophyll and pheophytin are the pigments found in a reaction centre. It comprises protein pigments that performs light absorption and excitation of an electron to the higher energy state. Reaction centre is generally seen in photosynthetic organisms like green plants, many bacteria and algae. Photosystem …

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Prions

Prions are the sub-viral agents, which function as a proteinaceous infectious particle without a genomic RNA or DNA. These are the pathogens that not only cause severe fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases in humans and also in the animals. Prions are composed solely of PrP proteins. A term prion was coined by a scientist named …

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Viroids

Viroids are the sub-viral agents, which are smaller and infectious particles. These are somewhat similar like viruses but possesses some unique properties in its evolutionary origin, morphology and function. In the year 1917, Diener was the first scientist who discovered and termed the non-bacterial infectious plant pathogen as “Viroids”. Potato spindle tuber viroids (PSTV) was …

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