Microbiology

Nutrition in Bacteria

Nutrition in bacteria is primarily categorized into two major groups, namely autotrophic and heterotrophic. Classification of bacteria in terms of nutritional requirement typically depends on the energy sources, whether in the form of light or chemical energy. Some bacteria obtain energy directly from the sunlight. However, a few bacteria get chemical energy by utilizing inorganic …

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Difference Between 70-S and 80-S Ribosomes

What is the difference between 70-S and 80-S ribosomes? They are classified based on their sedimentation rate. ‘S’ is the non-SI metric unit, expressed as Svedberg’s Unit, that denotes the sedimentation coefficient of the ribosomes. The particle size of ribosomes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differs, due to which they sediment at different rates when centrifuged. …

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Difference between Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere

The rhizosphere and phyllosphere are the two plant regions, where various microbes inhabit. Besides air, water and soil, plants also provide natural habitats for microbial growth. Each part of the plant encompasses a variety of microorganisms. And, they may impose positive or harmful effects on the plant’s growth events. The rhizosphere is the region surrounding …

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Thymus Dependent Antigens

Thymus dependent antigens are also called “T cell-dependent antigens” or “TD-Ags”. These are immunogens that induce antibody’s formation. It is one of the types of B-cell antigen. Naturally occurring antigens are T-cell dependent. Thymus dependent antigens are complex in nature. They are multideterminant antigens due to different epitopes on a cell surface. T-cell recognizes some …

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Difference Between Primary and Secondary Metabolites

The difference between primary and secondary metabolites produced by the bacteria lies in their origin and function. Besides bacteria, different plants and fungi produce a wide range of metabolites. This post discusses the differences between the bacteria’s primary and secondary metabolites. Also, we will study the comparison chart, definition and examples between the two. Metabolites …

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Bacteriological Incubator

The bacteriological incubator prominently cultivates a wide range of bacteria under controlled conditions. It has extensive use in research and medical laboratories. Bacteriological incubators provide an enclosed environment for the growth of bacteria. They work under the ideal temperature range of 35°C to 37°C. This post describes the bacteriological incubator’s meaning, principle, operation, and uses. …

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Batch Fermentation

Batch fermentation involves the fermentation of the substrate into products by microbial cells. This process occurs within a closed system. Unlike continuous culture, it requires the supply of limited nutrients into the fermentor. Fermentation utilizes a living microbial cell suspension. It produces various valuable products through fermentation of the raw material or substrate. In fermentation, …

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