Microbiology

Difference between Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere

The rhizosphere and phyllosphere are the two plant regions, where various microbes inhabit. Besides air, water and soil, plants also provide natural habitats for microbial growth. Each part of the plant encompasses a variety of microorganisms. And, they may impose positive or harmful effects on the plant’s growth events. The rhizosphere is the region surrounding …

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Thymus Dependent Antigens

Thymus dependent antigens are also called “T cell-dependent antigens” or “TD-Ags”. These are immunogens that induce antibody’s formation. It is one of the types of B-cell antigen. Naturally occurring antigens are T-cell dependent. Thymus dependent antigens are complex in nature. They are multideterminant antigens due to different epitopes on a cell surface. T-cell recognizes some …

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Difference Between Primary and Secondary Metabolites

The difference between primary and secondary metabolites produced by the bacteria lies in their origin and function. Besides bacteria, different plants and fungi produce a wide range of metabolites. This post discusses the differences between the bacteria’s primary and secondary metabolites. Also, we will study the comparison chart, definition and examples between the two. Metabolites …

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Bacteriological Incubator

The bacteriological incubator prominently cultivates a wide range of bacteria under controlled conditions. It has extensive use in research and medical laboratories. Bacteriological incubators provide an enclosed environment for the growth of bacteria. They work under the ideal temperature range of 35°C to 37°C. This post describes the bacteriological incubator’s meaning, principle, operation, and uses. …

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Batch Fermentation

Batch fermentation involves the fermentation of the substrate into products by microbial cells. This process occurs within a closed system. Unlike continuous culture, it requires the supply of limited nutrients into the fermentor. Fermentation utilizes a living microbial cell suspension. It produces various valuable products through fermentation of the raw material or substrate. In fermentation, …

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WBC Count Method

The WBC or leukocyte count method estimates white blood cells per microlitres of your blood. By enumerating the total number or concentration of leukocytes, you could determine the condition of your immune health. The average WBC count is between 4000 to 11000 cells/µL of blood. An increase in the concentration of leukocytes leads to a …

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Chemical Disinfectants

Chemical disinfectants either destroy, inactivate or inhibit the pathogenic growth. Disinfection eliminates various microbes, except for bacterial spores, using different chemical agents, heat or radiation. It disinfects the inanimate objects. Disinfection is classified into low-level, intermediate-level or high-level. Low-level disinfection is efficient in killing vegetative bacteria and lipid-containing viruses. Intermediate-level disinfection effectively kills bacteria, fungi …

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