Biotechnology

RBC Count Method

The RBC count method comes under haemocytometry, which quantitatively measures the number of RBCs in a blood sample. Haemocytometer or Neubauer’s chamber slide is a manual method to count RBCs. Nowadays, more accurate or automated devices have been developed like electrometric and photometric counters that can count the cell constituents of the blood sample. It …

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Genetic Codons

Genetic codons are the gene sequences which encodes specific amino acids that polymerize to form proteins. DNA is the heritable material that serves as a source of the hereditary unit, which transfers genetic information from one to the next generations. Therefore, in a cell, DNA is a director that mediates the synthesis of proteins. A …

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Difference Between Cofactor and Coenzyme

The difference between cofactor and coenzyme is mainly characterized based on chemical nature and function. Cofactors constitute a large group of helper molecules (inorganic or organic). Conversely, cofactors are small organic molecules. Coenzymes significantly act as carrier materials to convert the inactive protein (the apoenzyme) into the active form (holoenzyme). In contrast, cofactors serve as …

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Cheese Production

Cheese production or Caseiculture makes the use of raw materials, bacterial culture, and rennet to process the end-product, i.e. cheese. Cheese comes in different varieties by the differences in the ingredients and the processing of cheese. Cheesemaking is accomplished by using milk, either in a raw or pasteurized form. Depending upon the processing method, cheese …

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Membrane Proteins

Membrane proteins are the binding proteins that mediate the conduction of ions or molecules into and out of the cell membrane. Integral, peripheral and lipid-anchored are the three typical membrane proteins. The membrane protein is the principal constituent of the cell membrane that contributes to the plasma membrane structure. The union of membrane proteins and …

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Spectrophotometer

The spectrophotometer measures the absorption and spectral bandwidth of the given sample. Absorption is the logarithm of transmittance, i.e. Log (T), whereas transmittance is the portion of light moved through the sample. Transmittance refers to the ratio of light incidents on the test sample to the light transmits through the solution, i.e. IO/I. Spectral bandwidth …

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA abbreviated as “m-RNA”, and it contains specific codons encoding particular amino acids, which later synthesize proteins (as amino acids are the monomer units of proteins). Protein is an element that is required to develop life forms, so a cell must translate specific proteins. Therefore, for proper growth and cell development, gene translation or …

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