Difference Between Cerebrum and Cerebellum

introduction image

Cerebrum and Cerebellum are the two parts of the human brain or central nervous system that plays an integral role in our everyday life. The major differences between cerebrum and cerebellum are mainly due to the following properties like size, constitution to brain and location.

  • The size of the cerebrum is the largest part of the brain whereas cerebellum is much smaller or the second largest part of the brain.
  • Cerebrum constitutes about 83% of the total brain whereas cerebellum constitutes about 11% of the whole brain.
  • The cerebrum is a part of the brain which is located in the forebrain whereas cerebellum is located in the hindbrain.

Content: Cerebrum Vs Cerebellum

  1. Comparison Chart
  2. Definition of Cerebrum
  3. Definition of Cerebellum
  4. StructureofCerebrum
  5. Components of Cerebellum
  6. Key Differences Between Cerebrum and Cerebellum
  7. Conclusion

Comparison Chart

PropertiesCerebrumCerebellum
SizeLargerSmaller
Percentage in human brain83%11%
LocationForebrainHindbrain
Arbor vitaeWhite matter does not form arbor vitaeWhite matter forms arbor vitae
Hemisphere separationSeparated by longitudinal cerebral fissureSeparated by median vermis
Cortical layersIt is having 6 cortical layersIt is having 3 cortical layers
LobesCerebrum is divided into four lobesCerebellum is divided into three lobes
OriginFormed late during the evolution of humanFormed early during the evolution of human
Neuron percentageComparatively less than the cerebellumIt alone consist of 50% of total neurons
Activity controlControls voluntary action, motoric functions, cognition etc.Controls body movement, languages, emotions etc.
Fundamental rolePlay a fundamental role in human sensesPlay a fundamental role in maintaining body equilibrium

Definition of Cerebrum

It can define as the largest part (9 times) of the brain which constitutes about 80% of the total mass of the brain. The cerebrum is divided into two cerebral hemispheres namely right and left hemispheres. Each cerebral hemisphere surrounds by a grey matter and white matter within.

cerebrum

Each cerebral hemisphere divides into four lobes namely frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobe. Cerebrum performs a functional role in learning, speech, emotions etc.

Definition of Cerebellum

It can define as the second largest part of the brain, which only constitutes 11% of the total mass of the brain. Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum is also having two hemispheres and consist of outer grey matter and inner white matter. The cerebellum contains 50% of the brain’s neuron and specialized cells.

Cerebellum

It is located on the back of the brain. Each cerebellum hemisphere consists of three lobes namely anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe. Previously, the cerebellum was considered to be a motor structure which commands in motor learning, cognitive functions, maintenance of balance and posture etc.

Structure of Cerebrum

Cerebral is a part of forebrain which is found in the upper cranial cavity of the brain. It consists of the following structural elements:

structure of cerebrum

Cerebral hemisphere: There are two deep furrows which refer to left and right cerebral hemispheres. The “Longitudinal fissure separates the left and right cerebral hemispheres”. The left hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the right hemisphere controls the right side of the body. Corpus callosum is the joining element which links the two hemispheres of the brain, which passes messages between the two hemispheres.

Each hemisphere surrounds by the grey matter which forms by the “Nerve-cells”. Inside the grey matter, white matter is present which forms by the “Nerve fibres”. The nerve fibres in the white matter carry signals between the nerve cells and the other parts of the brain and body. Each cerebral hemisphere consists of four lobes like frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobe which performs the following functions that are mentioned in the table given below.

Cerebral lobesFunctions
Frontal lobeVoluntary movement
Parietal lobeGeneral sensation and feeling
Occipital lobeProcessing of visual information
Temporal lobeAuditory processing

Cerebral cortex: The cerebral cortex is the highly grooved region of the cerebrum. It is the structural element of the cerebrum which increases the surface area of the brain. Inside cerebrum, there is a bulk of “Neocortex”. The neocortex is a six-layered structure of cerebral cortex which involves higher information processing.

Gyrus: In the cerebrum, there is a bulk of elevated regions refers to “Gyri”. Gyri increase the surface area of the cerebrum and separate lobes based on its functional roles. Gyri also involve motor functions in the frontal lobe of the cerebrum refers as “Precentral gyrus”. Gyrus involved in sensory function in the parietal lobe refers as “Postcentral gyrus”.

Sulcus: Central sulcus found as a deep groove in the structure of the cerebrum which isolates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.

Structure of Cerebellum

Cerebellum is also having two hemispheres like cerebrum. It is the highly folded structure present underneath the occipital and temporal lobe of the cerebrum.

structure of cerebellum

Cerebellum is present below the dense mass of cerebral cortex of the cerebrum. It is present posterior to pons and above the brain stem. So, the cerebellum is the part of “Rhombencephalon region” which also refers to as “Hindbrain”.

Cerebellum hemisphere: Cerebellum develops after the metencephalon division which becomes separated by the four lobes of the cerebrum by the “Tentorium cerebelli”.

Vermis” is the midline area that links the two cerebellum hemisphere. Like the cerebrum, it also contains grey as well as white matter. In the cerebellum, three lobes are present namely anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe. “Primary fissure” and “Posterolateral fissure” separates the anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe.

Zones: A cerebellum has three zones namely vermis, intermediate and lateral hemisphere.

  • Vermis zone: It is the midline area which connects the two cerebellum hemispheres.
  • Intermediate zone: It is present intermediate to either side of the vermis zone.
  • Lateral hemisphere: It is present lateral to the intermediate zone.

The cerebellum plays a fundamental role in motor functioning where a brain is giving signals to the rest of body parts to carry out a particular task and that’s why it also refers to as “Little brain”.

Key Differences Between Cerebrum and Cerebellum

  1. The cerebrum is the larger which constitute about 83% of the total brain whereas cerebellum is comparatively smaller and constitute about 11% of the total mass.
  2. The location of the cerebrum is in the part of “Forebrain or Prosencephalon”, and the location of the cerebellum is in the part of “Hindbrain or Rhombencephalon”.
  3. Both the structures, i.e. cerebrum and cerebellum divides into two hemispheres which separates by longitudinal fissure and median vermis respectively.
  4. There are six cortical layers present in the cerebrum and three in the cerebellum.
  5. The cerebrum divides into four lobes namely frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobe whereas cerebellum divides into three lobes namely anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe.
  6. Both cerebrum and cerebellum perform a fundamental role like processing of human senses and maintenance of body equilibrium respectively.

Conclusion

Therefore both cerebrum and cerebellum are the two structures of the central nervous system. The cerebrum controls the thinking related processes like reasoning, learning, impulse control, visual memory, verbal memory and interprets sensory information. Cerebellum monitors the coordination in muscle movement.

Dura matter” separates the two structures that are cerebrum and cerebellum where both communicate via “Brain stem”. Therefore, cerebrum and cerebellum are the two different structures but both coordinates with each other and help us to perform tasks, memorize things etc.

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