Difference Between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

The difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is mainly due to the following factors like:

  1. Process
  2. Occurrence
  3. Product form after gametogenesis

Process: The process of spermatogenesis and oogenesis is different where one produces ‘Sperms’ from a ‘Spermatogonium’ and the other produces ‘Ovum’ from an ‘Oogonium’.

Occurrence: Spermatogenesis occurs inside the seminiferous tubules of a testis whereas oogenesis occurs inside the ovary.
The product form in spermatogenesis is sperm which is flagellated i.e. motile and the product form in an Oogonium is ovum which is non-motile. Therefore both sperm and ovum are structurally and functionally different from each other.

Product form after gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis and oogenesis are the two phenomena which refer to “Gametogenesis”. Gametogenesis is the process of formation of both male and female gametes i.e. sperm and ovum. The formation of sperm and ovum takes place inside the male and female gonads i.e. testis and ovary respectively.

Content: Spermatogenesis vs Oogenesis

  1. Comparison Chart
  2. Definition
  3. Difference in the process
  4. Facts about spermatogenesis and oogenesis
  5. Difference in male and female gamete
  6. Key Differences Between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
  7. Conclusion

Comparison chart

PropertiesSpermatogenesisOogenesis
OogenesisOccurs in maleOccurs in female
FormationSeminiferous tubules of testisIn ovaries
ProcessProduction of sperms from spermatogoniaProduction of ovum from oogonia
Production of ovum from oogoniaContinuous, occurs after the puberty till deathDiscontinuous, occurs after the puberty until menopause
StagesAll stages occurs inside the testisExcept the last stage which occurs in oviduct, all stages occurs inside the ovary
Sertoli cellsFound in germinal epitheliumAbsent
Nuclear condensationFoundAbsent
ReleasingSperms are released from the testisOocytes are released from the ovary which matures later
Growth phaseToo shortProlonged
Food reserveSperm contains less food reserveOvum contain lot of food reserve
CytokinesisEqualUnequal
ResultForms four motile male gametes i.e. spermsForms one non motile female gamete i.e. ovum

Definition

Spermatogenesis: It is the reproductive stage where the formation of haploid sperms or spermatozoa occurs from a diploid stem cell refers to “Spermatogonium” in a male gonad, i.e. seminiferous tubules of a testis.

Oogenesis: It is the reproductive stage where the formation of haploid ovum occurs from a diploid stem cell refers to “Oogonium” in a female gonad, i.e. ovaries.

Difference in the process

Both the process of gametogenesis differs in their three phases which are multiplication, growth, maturation or differentiation.

difference in process of spermatogenesis and oogenesis

Spermatogenesis: It involves the following steps:

  1. Spermatogonium first develops from the germinal epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules which is diploid stem-cell having totipotency i.e. self-renewing capacity.
  2. Spermatogonium then undergoes mitosis cell division and differentiates into primary spermatocytes is the process refers to “Spermatocytogenesis”.
  3. Then primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis cell division-1 and form two secondary spermatocytes.
  4. Secondary spermatocytes further undergo meiosis cell division-2 and form two spermatids which connect to the border of testis lumen through the cytoplasmic bridges.
  5. Spermatids are round, unflagellated cells which undergo maturation and form motile, haploid spermatozoa or sperms. And, the process of formation of sperms forms spermatids refers to “Spermiogenesis”.

Oogenesis:  It involves the following steps:

  1. Oogonium first develops from the germinal epithelium overlying the ovary which is diploid stem-cell also having a self-renewing capacity.
  2. Oogonium then undergoes mitosis cell division and differentiates into primary oocytes.
  3. Then primary oocytes undergo meiosis cell division-1 which arrest at diplotene stage in the childhood and puberty onwards these forms secondary oocyte and one polar body.
  4. Secondary oocytes further undergo meiosis cell division-2 which arrest at metaphase stage forms ootid.
  5. At last, ootid when undergoes the process of fertilization it forms non-motile, large and spherical ovum and second polar body that degenerates.

Facts about spermatogenesis and oogenesis

There are some facts that we must know about both the processes, which may arise many questions. So, there are some points that we should remember to know more about spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Points to remember in Spermatogenesis:

  • Spermatogenesis takes 70 days to form sperm from Spermatogonium.
  • A Spermatogonium forms four spermatozoa or sperms.
  • One primary spermatocyte will produce two secondary spermatocytes.
  • The number of chromosomes is 46 in human, therefore as there is no meiosis division in the Spermatogonium, therefore, the chromosomal number will be the same I.e. 46 in primary spermatocyte. But when primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis cell division 1 and 2, therefore, the chromosomal number becomes half i.e. 23 in the secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperms.
  • In one ejaculation, 200-300 million sperms produce, in which 60% are non-motile and 40% are motile.
  • If there is 20million/ml of semen, then the condition refers to “Oligospermia” which cause infertility because the normal range should be within 100million/ml of semen in a male.

Points to remember in Oogenesis:

  • An Oogonium produces a single ovum.
  • One primary oocyte will produce one secondary oocyte and one polar body which degenerates from the ovary.
  • The number of chromosomes is 46 in human, therefore as there is no meiosis division in the Oogonium, therefore, the chromosomal number will be the same I.e. 46 in the primary oocyte. But when primary oocyte undergoes meiosis cell division 1 and 2, therefore, the chromosomal number becomes half i.e. 23 in the secondary oocyte and one polar body and ovum.
  • In oogenesis, 7million primary oocytes forms in the ovary of a female foetus which regresses to 2-4millions at the time of birth. By puberty, only 40,000 primary oocytes left out and regress to 480 in number after the division in a reproductive phase of 11-50year in females.

Difference in male and female gamete

As from spermatogenesis, male gametes produces i.e. sperms whereas, from oogenesis, female gametes produce i.e. ovum.

Both sperm and ovum differ in many ways like their structure, motility, shape, size etc.

Structure of sperm

  • It consists of three parts head, neck and tail i.e. sperm is differentiated.

sperm

Head: It consists of acrosome and nucleus. The acrosome is present at the tip and is formed by Golgi body and contain an enzyme refers to “Sperm lysins”. It performs a vital role which enters the ovum by digesting away its membrane. A non-condensed nucleus is present having no nucleoplasm.

Neck: It consists of proximal and distal centrioles. A proximal centriole is required for the first cleavage. Distal centriole maintains the axial filament.

Middle piece: It comprises of axial filament and mitochondria. Axial filament consists of compactly arranged mitochondria which are approximately 25 in number that provides energy for the flagellar movement.

Tail: It is elongated and motile surrounds by a flagellar sheath.

  • Sperm is yolkless.
  • The size of the sperm is smaller than the spermatocytes.
  • It contains less amount of cytoplasm.
  • Sperm surrounds by only one plasma membrane.

Structure of ovum

  • It does not consist of a head, neck and tail i.e. ovum is not differentiated.

ovum

  • A nucleus of an ovum is eccentric and in this nuclear condensation is present where it is bloated with nucleoplasm and refers to germinal vesicles.
  • Ovum lacks centrioles
  • In this, mitochondria scatter in the cytoplasm.
  • It is alecithal i.e. ovum having little or no yolk.
  • The size of an ovum is larger than the oocytes.
  • It contains a large amount of cytoplasm.
  • Ovum surrounds by two layers namely granulosa cells and zona pellucida.

Key Differences Between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

  1. Spermatogenesis is the production of sperms from spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubules of the testis in a male. Oogenesis is the production of the ovum from oogonia inside the ovary of a female.
  2. Spermatogenesis is a continuous process which occurs after the puberty till death whereas oogenesis is a discontinuous process which occurs after the puberty till menopause.
  3. All stages of spermatogenesis occur inside the testis of a male whereas, in oogenesis except the last stage (occurs in the oviduct), all the stages occur inside the ovary.
  4. In spermatogenesis, sperms release out from the testis whereas, in oogenesis, oocytes release from the ovary which develops later.
  5. Spermatogenesis results into four motile male gametes (sperms) from a Spermatogonium and oogenesis results into a single non-motile female gamete (ovum) from an Oogonium.

Conclusion

We can conclude that both spermatogenesis and oogenesis are the reproductive phases which basically includes three phases like multiplication, growth, maturation and differentiation.

Multiplication is a process where Spermatogonium and oogonium multiply by mitosis to form germ cells spermatocytes and oocytes respectively which increase its number. Growth is a phase where both the germ cells grow in size. Maturation takes place when germ cells undergo meiosis and maturation where they form spermatids and ootids which later undergo differentiation into male and female gametes.

2 thoughts on “Difference Between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis”

  1. Thanks ……, your content is really nice as you have described everything so clearly that anyone can understand, so again thank you.

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