Microbiology

WBC Count Method

The WBC or leukocyte count method estimates white blood cells per microlitres of your blood. By enumerating the total number or concentration of leukocytes, you could determine the condition of your immune health. The average WBC count is between 4000 to 11000 cells/µL of blood. An increase in the concentration of leukocytes leads to a …

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Chemical Disinfectants

Chemical disinfectants either destroy, inactivate or inhibit the pathogenic growth. Disinfection eliminates various microbes, except for bacterial spores, using different chemical agents, heat or radiation. It disinfects the inanimate objects. Disinfection is classified into low-level, intermediate-level or high-level. Low-level disinfection is efficient in killing vegetative bacteria and lipid-containing viruses. Intermediate-level disinfection effectively kills bacteria, fungi …

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Allosteric Site

The allosteric site of an enzyme is regulatory in function. Enzymes with allosteric or regulatory sites behave as the “Allosteric enzymes”. Such enzymes possess multiple binding sites for both substrates and effectors. Allosteric enzymes are regulated by the non-covalent or reversible binding of effectors or non-substrate molecules to the allosteric site. Thus, the allosteric site …

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Bacterial Transcription

Bacterial transcription occurs in the cytoplasm. Transcription merely refers to the mechanism of mRNA synthesis complementary to the DNA template strand. The whole process is regulated enzymatically by the RNA polymerase holoenzyme. The study of transcription in prokaryotes is quite simple than the eukaryotic transcription. Besides RNA polymerase, prokaryotic transcription uses some protein factors that …

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Difference Between Anabolism and Catabolism

The difference between anabolism and catabolism is mainly characterized due to the difference in the types of substrates participating, types of products forming and the type of metabolic phase. Small monomers function as the substrate molecules in anabolism, whereas large and complex polymers serve as the substrate molecules in catabolism. Anabolic pathways typically form complex …

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Lipid Aggregates

Lipid aggregates exist in varying forms starting from monolayer to structures like lamellar, tubular, cubic etc. The different structures or aggregates of lipids are known as phases. Largely, lipids are hydrophobic or water-insoluble. Lipids assemble into microscopic aggregates in the aqueous environment because of their amphipathic nature. They possess both hydrophilic (a polar head) and …

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Fed-Batch Culture

Fed-batch culture is a modified batch culture method or an intermediate of batch and continuous fermentation techniques. Like batch culture, products of the fed-batch culture are harvested in batches, i.e. after the batch time. However, the substrate is added periodically throughout the cultivation, like the continuous fermentation method. Although, the amount of substrate required to …

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Alternaria Fungi

Alternaria fungi constitute a major group of plant pathogens. They belong to the phylum Deuteromycetes or Fungi imperfecti due to the lack of sexual stage in their life cycle. Thus, Alternaria species only reproduce asexually by conidiospores, and the process is called an anamorph state. The genus Alternaria has nearly 299 species. They are ubiquitous. …

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Chemical Mutagens

Chemical mutagens refer to the chemical agents that impose severe genetic abnormalities by directly or indirectly interacting with the DNA. DNA damage and alternations in nucleotide sequence prevalently result, after the treatment of nucleobases with base analogues and base altering agents. In addition, some chemical mutagens like intercalating agents may distort the DNA structure. Base …

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