Microbiology

Indole Test

Indole test is a biochemical test that helps in the identification and classification of bacteria based on their tendency to decompose amino acid (Tryptophan) into a compound refers as “Indole”. It is a part of a biochemical method popularly known as IMViC test, where ‘I’ stands for indole test. Indole is one of the end …

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Bacterial Conjugation

Bacterial conjugation is a gene transfer mechanism, first introduced by the scientists named Lederberg and Tatum in the year 1946. The conjugation method was first studied in Escherichia coli. The formation of a conjugation tube is the characteristic feature in a conjugation mechanism. Instead of transduction and transformation, some bacteria passes the genetic information from …

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Centrifugation Method

Centrifugation method is a process of separating different components or the suspended particles from the homogenous solution, by the practice of centrifugal force. It separates particles based on their physical properties like size, shape, density etc. and chemical properties like molecular weight and viscosity. A natural gravitational force can also concentrate particles but in an …

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SOS Repair

SOS repair is one of the DNA repair mechanisms, which commonly refers to as “bypass” or “Emergency” repair. This system was first introduced in the year 1975, by a scientist named Miroslav Radman. It is a regulatory system which comprises of many complex inducer proteins that helps to repair the damaged DNA, caused due to …

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Oxidation Pond

Oxidation pond is a type of wastewater treatment which also refers as lagoons or water stabilization pond. It is a secondary treatment of wastewater coming from industries, residential areas etc. It makes the use of microorganisms like bacteria, algae and light energy (sunlight) to stabilize the wastewater. Oxidation pond is constructed 1-1.5m deep inside the …

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Chromomycosis

Chromomycosis is a chronic fungal infection disease that infects the subcutaneous tissue of the skin and also refers to as “Chronic subcutaneous mycosis”. It mainly occurs by the diverse group of dematiaceous or black fungi. Dematiaceous fungi are the heterogeneous group of fungi, which usually forms lesions or abscesses in the subcutaneous tissue. Interaction of …

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Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium botulinum is clinically significant bacteria, which cause a very rare but a severe disease called “Botulism”. It produces a particular type of exotoxin that affects the nervous system by inhibiting the activity of neuromuscular junction. The botulinum toxin thus behaves as a neurotoxin that blocks the release of a neurotransmitter refers as “Acetylcholine”. Acetylcholine …

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Botulism Disease

Botulism disease is caused by a bacterial agent (Clostridium botulinum) which produces an exotoxin. Clostridium botulinum causes bacterial food poisoning or intoxication by the release of exotoxin. Exotoxin acts as a neurotoxin that disables the normal functioning of the nervous system. Thus, an exotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum refers as a Botulinum neurotoxin, which blocks the …

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