Microbiology

Inclusions in Prokaryotes

Inclusions in prokaryotes include certain types of food reserve granules and some monolayered non-unit membrane-enclosed cytoplasmic inclusions. Cell inclusion bodies can define as the pigmented molecules, which resides within the cell. It does not function like membrane-bound organelles but performs a pivotal role to store reserve materials. Inclusion bodies occupy within the cytosol enveloped by …

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Nuclear Pore Complex

Nuclear pore complex encases the nuclear pore, which facilitates translocation of macromolecules within the cell. A nuclear envelop possesses two concentric outer and inner layer that are fused with the NPCs. Both the phospholipid nuclear membranes are isolated by the perinuclear space in between. The nuclear membrane works as a selective barrier and also protects …

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Difference Between Induction and Repression

The difference between induction and repression of operon is mainly due to the following factors: Regulation: The operon system in prokaryotes regulate the expression of enzymes necessary to turn on or off the metabolic pathway. The regulatory gene of inducible operon forms an active repressor protein, whose binding affinity towards the operator region is mediated …

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Nutrient Agar

Nutrient agar is a standard media that is used for growing and isolating of a broad class of microorganisms. It is the most popular media that are generally available in all laboratories for enumeration of different bacteria and their maintenance. The enumeration of different bacteria from different samples like soil, water, sewage, food etc. can …

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Fluorescence Microscopy

The fluorescence microscopy makes the use of fluorescence mechanism to generate an image and optical sectioning for the high resolution. It is available in different designs. The most common and simple set-up in use is epifluorescence microscopes, while confocal microscope has a sophisticated set-up. Epifluorescence microscope is commonly used in different laboratories that allows excitation …

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Autoclave Sterilization

Autoclave sterilization is a moist heat sterilizing technique that is commonly used in laboratories, industries, and hospitals to purify the sample, equipment, glassware, etc. It uses high-pressure steam to destroy the bacterial cells, also called steam sterilization. It is one of the types of steam sterilizers that removes contaminants from the goods like the way …

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PCR Amplification

PCR amplification is a popular method used to amplify the short DNA fragments, and also called “Molecular photocopying”. PCR is an acronym used for Polymerase chain reaction. Kerry Mullis was the first scientist, who introduced PCR with its remarkable applicability in genetic and molecular biology. It is a modern, inexpensive, and rapid (requires few hours) …

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Gel Filtration Chromatography

Gel filtration chromatography is one of the chromatography methods that facilitate particles separation based on the molecular size. It also called size exclusion and gel permeation chromatography. The source of particle separation is achieved by employing a filtration technique via gel beads. The gel beads possess specific porosity that retains or exclude the components with …

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Macrophages

Macrophages can define as the specialized immune cells that primarily recognize the foreign particles, and the cell remainings to facilitate phagocytosis. It differentiates from the monocytes. Besides phagocytosis, macrophages also play a functional role in presenting foreign particles to the T cells and also performs activation of other immune cells by releasing cytokines. Macrophages perform …

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