Botany

Adaptations in Hydrophytes

Adaptations in hydrophyte are of three kinds, ecological, physiological and anatomical. For the survival in an aquatic habitat, hydrophytes modify its structures like leaves, stem, roots and the physiology of the cells to adapt themselves according to the different aquatic habitats like freshwater, marine water, lakes, ponds etc. The adaptations in hydrophyte depend upon the …

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Hydrophytes

Hydrophytes represent a group of plants that are the part of the aquatic ecosystem, where most of the plants live in water or the soil saturated with water. The higher plants of hydrophytes have been evolved from the mesophytes. These sometimes refer as “Macrophytes” and are the common components of wetland. These plants live in …

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Difference Between Hypogynous and Epigynous Flower

Difference between hypogynous and epigynous flower is mainly due to the following factors, namely the position of an ovary and attachment of perianth and androecium. Position of the ovary: An ovary is a flower’s female reproductive structure that constitutes Gynoecium along with stigma and style. A hypogynous flower consists of a superior ovary, whereas epigynous flower …

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Corolla in Plants

Corolla in plants is a second whorl that completes the perianth together with the layer of the calyx. It generally comprises several petals whose primary function is similar to the role of calyx that is to protect the flower reproductive structures. Corolla is also a sterile part of the flower. It can be tubular, funnel-shaped, wheel-shaped …

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Calyx in Plants

Calyx in plants merely refers as an outermost whorl that is sterile or non-reproductive structure constituting perianth. Group of sepals unitedly refer as the calyx. Thus, sepals are nothing but the modified leaves that account for the formation of the flower’s outermost whorl. It can be regular or irregular in size and shape, and the …

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Photoperiodism

Photoperiodism can merely define as the potential of the plant to incite flowering relative to the changes in the photoperiod. Thus, photoperiod is a light duration or the length of day and night, while the photoperiodism is the effect of light duration in the growth of a plant. Depending upon the photoperiodic effect on flowering, the …

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Vernalization

Vernalization defines as a process of growing flowers and fruits through a phase of cold treatment. It reduces the time period of the juvenile vegetative growth phase in the plants. The active meristematic cells of the shoot apex, root apex, embryo tips etc. participate in the production of stimulus refers as “Vernalin”. The term vernalization …

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Collenchyma Tissue

Collenchyma tissue is a term given by a scientist named Schleiden in the year 1839. It is a kind of simple permanent supportive tissue that confers mechanical strength to the plant. The collenchyma cells appear as elongated cells with the non-uniform thickened cell wall. It originates by the modification of parenchyma tissue into the cells comprising …

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Penicillium

Penicillium is a genus consisting of a group of fungi having around 354 accepted species. It also refers as “Doctor Fungi” as few members of the genus (Penicillium) can produce antibiotic to inhibit the growth of certain bacteria. Penicillium species are ubiquitous, where many produce potential mycotoxins, few produce medically useful antibiotics, and some are …

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