Oxidation Pond

Oxidation pond or lagoon or water stabilization pond is a secondary wastewater treatment that treats waste or sewage coming from industries, residential areas, etc. It uses microorganisms like bacteria, algae and light energy (sunlight) to stabilize the wastewater. The oxidation pond is constructed 1-1.5 m deep inside the soil and provided with inlet and outlet systems. …

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Stomata in Plants

Stomata in plants appear as minute pores, primarily in the epidermis layer of the leaf surface and rarely in some of the herbaceous stems. It was originated from the Greek word stoma (means mouth) to relate it with the term “stomatal pore”. A stoma is a singular form, whereas a high number of stoma is termed …

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Transpiration in Plants

Transpiration in plants is a process of water loss (in the form of water vapours) into the atmosphere from the leaf surface and stems. Plants undergo transpiration primarily to access carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis and to cool themselves. As the plants are immobile, they manage their water needs by the two fundamental processes like …

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Chromomycosis

Chromomycosis, or Chronic subcutaneous mycosis, is a severe fungal infectious disease that infects the skin’s subcutaneous tissue. A diverse group of dematiaceous or black fungi cause chromomycosis. Dematiaceous fungi are the heterogeneous fungal group, which usually form lesions or abscess in the subcutaneous tissue. Interaction of host tissue with the fungus shows a non-specific kind …

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Respiration in Plants

Respiration in plants refers to a process in which a plant utilizes atmospheric oxygen to oxidize glucose and other respiratory substrates like fats or proteins. Respiratory substrates are high energy biomolecules that produce energy, carbon dioxide, and water due to the C-C bond breaks. Plants undergo cellular respiration in the presence or absence of light. …

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Germination of Plant

Germination of a plant refers to a phenomenon in which a seed germinates to form a new seeding or plant. The germination process results in the emergence of the radicle (primary root) and plumule (primary shoot). Before germination, the seed remains dormant in the soil. Then, under favourable conditions (optimum temperature, oxygen, light, water etc.), a …

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Anther

The anther is a part of the flower’s male reproductive system or stamen. It carries the reproductive structures or the male gametes (pollen grains), which germinate and cause the fertilization of an ovule. A male reproductive part of a flower typically consists of two elements (filament and anther). A filament appears as a long, slender …

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Pollination in Flower

Pollination in a flower is a transferring mechanism of pollen grains from the anther (flower’s male reproductory part or stamen) to the stigma (flower’s female reproductive part or gynoecium). It is the primary stage that results in the flower’s fertilization. The passage of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma occurs via pollinating agents …

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