Excision Repair

Excision repair is one of the types of DNA repair systems. It is an enzymatic process, which follows a cut, copy and paste mechanism. A cutting mechanism involves removing a damaged part or unusual bases by specific enzymes like glycosylases and helicases. Then, a copying mechanism uses DNA polymerase. DNAP-I uses the template DNA to …

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Gynoecium

Gynoecium, carpel or pistil primarily comprises three structures, namely stigma, style and ovary. It accounts for the flower’s female reproductive part that carries the female gametes or ovules within an ovary. Towards the gynoecium base, the pedicle or thalamus provides support to the female reproductive part and the other parts as well. An ovary is …

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Adenovirus

Adenovirus is a type of DNA virus, which appears medium-sized, non-enveloped and double-stranded. Adenovirus named after its isolation from the human adenoid tissue. It was first introduced by a scientist named Rowe, who cultured and isolated adenovirus via plasma tissue culturing. This group of virus can infect human, animals and birds. Adenovirus can cause various …

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Spoilage of Fish

Spoilage of fish is a process of deterioration in the quality of fish, which changes its appearance, odour and taste. The breakdown of biomolecules like proteins, amino acids and fats in the fish are the factors responsible for fish spoilage. Thus, a fish can be spoiled by either chemical or biological degradation. In chemical degradation, …

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Actinomycetes

Actinomycetes belong to the group of prokaryotic, gram-positive bacteria those are having a filamentous structure. Its filamentous structure resembles the fungal mycelium, which consists of a highly dense and filamentous network. Due to the filamentous structure of actinomycetes, it is also termed as thread or ray bacteria. The cell wall and the internal structure of …

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Endospore Staining

Endospore staining is a type of special staining method, which makes use of differential staining procedure to highlight the presence or absence of endospores. For the staining of endospores, the first article was published by Dorner in the year 1922. Later, the Dorner method of staining endospores has been modified by two scientists, Schaeffar and …

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