Xanthophyll

Xanthophyll is a type of accessory pigment or phytochemicals, which belongs to the class of “Carotenoids”. In many vascular plants and algae, xanthophylls act as the light-harvesting protein complexes. Xanthophylls are rich in antioxidants, which prevent the cells from damaging. In photosynthetic eukaryotes, the xanthophylls are usually bound to the chlorophyll molecules. Xanthophylls are the …

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Acetic Acid Production

Acetic acid production refers to the production of acetic acid or vinegar through two steps modification via two different microorganisms. The first step involves the conversion of sugar into ethanol by the yeast (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In the second step, oxidation of ethanol into acetic acid takes place by the bacteria like Acetobacter, Gluconabacter sp. …

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Nucleotide

A nucleotide is a compound, which can form a polynucleotide chain by the union of nitrogenous bases and sugar-phosphate group. Monomers of nucleotide units are connected via a covalent phosphodiester bond. Nitrogenous bases, i.e. purines and pyrimidine, are attached via weak hydrogen bonds. The bases link with a deoxyribose pentose sugar via an N-glycosidic bond. …

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Continuous Culture

The continuous culture is an open cultivation process, in which the cell growth is maintained in the continuous mode of operations. It works as an open cultivation system, in which the fresh nutrient medium is continuously added into the culture vessel rather than recycling and reuse of the nutrients or substrate. There is an inlet pump …

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