Difference Between Vascular and Nonvascular Plants

The difference between vascular and nonvascular plants is mainly characterized based on the presence or absence of vascular tissues and their categorization in the plant taxonomy. The presence or absence of vascular tissue distinguishes the vascular plants containing lignified vascular tissues from the nonvascular plants that lack a specialized vascular system. The translocation of food, …

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Life Cycle of Bryophytes

The life cycle of bryophytes has two alternations of generations, one is haploid gametophyte generation, and the other is diploid saprophytic generation. In both the life cycle, the bryophytes possess different morphology and physiological functions. The haploid gametophyte phase lasts longer or dominates the diploid saprophytic phase between these two alternations of generations. Heterosporous bryophytes …

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Phylum Porifera

Phylum Porifera is placed in the kingdom Animalia and regarded as the oldest animal group. The term Porifera merely refers to pore bearers that include Poriferans or pore bearing animals. Poriferans or sponges possess small pores on their entire body and some wide openings. The members of Phylum Porifera are metazoans that show a cellular …

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Difference Between Succulents and Cacti

The difference between succulents and cacti is mainly due to the following factors: Presence of areole: Areole is a specialized structure from which spines, flowers, or fruits develops. Its presence is the characteristic feature of all cactuses, while unusual in succulents. Phenotypic traits: All cactuses have a stem, whereas succulents possess a root system, stem …

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Gel Filtration Chromatography

Gel filtration chromatography is one of the chromatography methods that facilitate particles separation based on molecular size. Size exclusion, molecular sieve and gel permeation chromatography are the alternative names of gel filtration chromatography. The porous gel matrix is the stationary phase that contains a hydrated, sponge-like material. Oppositely, the buffer solution or aqueous phase functions …

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Macrophages

Macrophages differentiate from monocytes. They are specialized immune cells that primarily recognize the foreign particles and cell remains through toll-like receptors. Then, they phagocytose foreign particles by amoeboid movements through phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a functional role in presenting foreign particles to the T cells and thereby causing the destruction of potential pathogens. They activate …

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Lichens

Lichens are complex organisms that show a mutualistic relationship between fungi and algae by possessing characteristics of both. They show polymorphism by existing in diversified forms (sometimes plant-like) with different colours, sizes, and textures. Lichens represent the close association or symbiotic association of fungi with few algae and cyanobacteria. Lichens are not plants, but at …

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T Cell

T cell or thymus cell lymphocyte is one of the immune cells, which grows in the thymus gland. It performs a significant role in stimulating an adaptive immune response. T lymphocytes are different from the other immune cells in having T-cell receptors or TCRs on their cell surface. TCRs exist as a heterodimer protein complex …

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