Supriya N

Hydrophytes

Hydrophytes represent a group of plants, which are part of the aquatic ecosystem, where most of the plants live in water or the soil saturated with water. The higher plants of hydrophytes have been evolved from the mesophytes. These sometimes refer as macrophytes and are the common components of wetland. The plants live in such …

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Difference Between Hypogynous and Epigynous Flower

The difference between hypogynous and epigynous flower is mainly due to the following factors, namely the position of an ovary, the attachment of the perianth and androecium. Position of the ovary: An ovary is a flower’s female reproductive structure, which constitutes gynoecium along with the stigma and style. Hypogynous flowers consist of a superior ovary, …

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Corolla in Plants

Corolla in plants is a second whorl, which completes the perianth in combination with a layer of the calyx. It generally comprises several petals whose primary function is similar to the role of the calyx, which protects the flower reproductive structures. Corolla is also a sterile part of the flower. It can be tubular, funnel-shaped, …

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Calyx in Plants

Calyx in plants merely refers to a sterile outermost whorl or non-reproductive structure, which constitutes perianth. A group of sepals unitedly forms a calyx. Thus, sepals are nothing but the modified leaves, which account for forming the flower’s outermost whorl. It can be regular or irregular in size and shape, and the number may also …

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Phytochrome in Plants

Phytochrome in plants exists as a soluble protein pigment, which carries out photomorphogenic growth. It is present almost in all eukaryotic plants and first discovered by a scientist named Sterling Hendricks and Herry Borthwick in 1940-1960. Warren Butler gave the term phytochrome. In 1983, Peter and Clark were the two scientists who introduced chemical purification …

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Photoperiodism

Photoperiodism merely refers to the potential of the plant to incite flowering relative to the changes in the photoperiod. Thus, photoperiod is a light duration or the length of day and night, while photoperiodism is the effect of light duration on the plant’s growth. Depending upon the photoperiodic effect on flowering, the plants are grouped …

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Vernalization

Vernalization refers to the process of growing flowers and fruits through a phase of cold treatment. It reduces the time period of the juvenile vegetative growth phase in the plants. The active meristematic cells of the shoot apex, root apex, embryo tips etc., participate in the production of stimulus (Vernalin). The term vernalization has been …

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Collenchyma Tissue

Collenchyma tissue is a term given by a scientist named Schleiden in the year 1839. It is a kind of simple permanent supportive tissue that confers mechanical strength to the plant. The collenchyma cells appear as elongated cells with a non-uniform thickened cell wall. Collenchymatous cells originate by the modification of parenchyma tissues into the …

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Membrane Proteins

Membrane proteins are the binding proteins that mediate the conduction of ions or molecules into and out of the cell membrane. Integral, peripheral and lipid-anchored are the three typical membrane proteins. The membrane protein is the principal constituent of the cell membrane that contributes to the plasma membrane structure. The union of membrane proteins and …

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