Supriya N

Negative Staining

Negative staining or Indirect staining refers to a staining technique that helps us visualize various microorganisms through light and electron microscopy. In bright field microscopy, the method of indirect staining employs liquid medium (black coloured dyes) like Nigrosin and India ink that stains the background, leaving the bacteria unstained. The negative staining technique uses a …

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Chlamydia

Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular parasite that functions as a “Large virus”. Chlamydias are entirely dependent on the host cells for energy metabolism, like viruses. However, they are true bacteria and differ from viruses by many ways. Like bacteria, chlamydia also possesses both DNA and RNA. They multiply by binary fission, whereas viruses go through …

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Difference Between Selective and Differential Media

The difference between selective and differential media is mainly due to the following factors: Intended use of the media: The purpose of both selective and differential media differs. A selective media only permits the development of particular organisms, while a differential media discerns one species of the organism from the others that are growing on …

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MacConkey Agar Media

MacConkey agar media was first introduced by a scientist named Alfred Theodore MacConkey in the year 1890s. It is primarily exercised to isolate and differentiate the non-fastidious, gram-negative bacilli belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Previously, it was first considered as “Solid differential media”. But now, both liquid broth and solid culture MacConkey media preparations are …

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Pinocytosis

Pinocytosis is a kind of endocytic process. It refers to the cellular mechanism where the bilayer cell membrane invaginates to form a sac to uptake the extracellular fluids and solutes into the cytoplasm. Pinocytosis is a spontaneous endocytic process, which occurs in almost all cells. It prevalently occurs in eukaryotes. Pinocytosis, cell drinking or fluid-phase …

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Phagocytosis

Phagocytosis is a method of endocytosis. It refers to the cellular mechanism where the invagination of the plasma membrane causes internalization of the extracellular contents into the cell in the form of vesicles. Internalization is a process where a plasma membrane undergoes successive invagination to form membrane-bound vesicles, which later detach from the cell membrane …

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Exocytosis

Exocytosis is a means of membrane transportation that expels the intracellular material out of the cell. The transport of the substance is mediated by the vesicles that eliminate the cell debris and release specific proteins, enzymes, hormones etc., outside the cell. It is a type of active transport mechanism that makes the use of ATP. …

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Cheese Production

Cheese production or Caseiculture makes the use of raw materials, bacterial culture, and rennet to process the end-product, i.e. cheese. Cheese comes in different varieties by the differences in the ingredients and the processing of cheese. Cheesemaking is accomplished by using milk, either in a raw or pasteurized form. Depending upon the processing method, cheese …

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Mesophytes

Mesophytes represent the group of plants that can neither grow in the complete aquatic habitat nor the dry or water-scarce conditions. They are the land plants showing features similar to both hydrophytes and xerophytes. They grow under favourable conditions, where the concentration of water and temperature are not too high and not too much low. …

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Adaptations in Hydrophytes

Adaptations in hydrophyte are of three kinds, ecological, physiological and anatomical. To survive in the aquatic habitat, hydrophytes modify their structures like leaves, stem, roots and the physiology of the cells to adapt themselves according to the different aquatic habitats like freshwater, marine water, lakes, ponds. The adaptations in hydrophyte depend upon the conditions like …

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