Supriya N

Botulism Disease

Botulism disease is caused by a bacterial agent, Clostridium botulinum, that produces an exotoxin. Clostridium botulinum causes bacterial food poisoning or intoxication as it releases exotoxin. Exotoxin acts as a neurotoxin, which disables the normal functioning of the nervous system. Thus, an exotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is called botulinum neurotoxin, which blocks the synthesis of the …

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Acid Fast Staining

Acid-fast staining was originally pioneered by a scientist named Paul Ehrlich in the year 1882. Later, it was modified by Ziehl and Neelson in 1883. Thus, acid-fast staining is also called Ziehl Neelson staining. It is a type of differential staining method used to distinguish between the acid-fast and non-acid fast bacteria. Mycobacterium is an …

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Excision Repair

Excision repair is one of the types of DNA repair systems. It is an enzymatic process, which follows a cut, copy and paste mechanism. A cutting mechanism involves removing a damaged part or unusual bases by specific enzymes like glycosylases and helicases. Then, a copying mechanism uses DNA polymerase. DNAP-I uses the template DNA to …

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Gynoecium

Gynoecium, carpel or pistil primarily comprises three structures, namely stigma, style and ovary. It accounts for the flower’s female reproductive part that carries the female gametes or ovules within an ovary. Towards the gynoecium base, the pedicle or thalamus provides support to the female reproductive part and the other parts as well. An ovary is …

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Adenovirus

Adenovirus is a type of DNA virus, which appears medium-sized, non-enveloped and double-stranded. Adenovirus named after its isolation from the human adenoid tissue. It was first introduced by a scientist named Rowe, who cultured and isolated adenovirus via plasma tissue culturing. This group of virus can infect human, animals and birds. Adenovirus can cause various …

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Spoilage of Fish

Spoilage of fish is a process of deterioration in the quality of fish, which changes its appearance, odour and taste. The breakdown of biomolecules like proteins, amino acids and fats in the fish are the factors responsible for fish spoilage. Thus, a fish can be spoiled by either chemical or biological degradation. In chemical degradation, …

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