Supriya N

Capsule Staining

Capsule staining is one of the staining methods, which creates contrast in the microscopic image either by staining bacterial cells and background or staining the capsule only. Therefore, capsule staining can be done by two methods, namely positive and negative staining methods. Positive staining method either stain a capsule only or stain both the capsule …

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Riboflavin

Riboflavin or Vitamin B-2 belongs to the Vitamin-B group, which are of eight kinds viz. vitamin B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, B-7, B-9, B-12. It plays a crucial role in converting and breaking down protein, fats, and carbohydrates to produce energy. Vitamin B-2 converts complex carbohydrates, proteins and fat into simple sugar, amino acids and …

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Xanthophyll

Xanthophyll is a type of accessory pigment or phytochemicals, which belongs to the class of “Carotenoids”. In many vascular plants and algae, xanthophylls act as the light-harvesting protein complexes. Xanthophylls are rich in antioxidants, which prevent the cells from damaging. In photosynthetic eukaryotes, the xanthophylls are usually bound to the chlorophyll molecules. Xanthophylls are the …

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Acetic Acid Production

Acetic acid production refers to the production of acetic acid or vinegar through two steps modification via two different microorganisms. The first step involves the conversion of sugar into ethanol by the yeast (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In the second step, oxidation of ethanol into acetic acid takes place by the bacteria like Acetobacter, Gluconabacter sp. …

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