Supriya N

Retrogradation of Starch

Retrogradation of starch is just opposite of the starch gelatinization. Here, the term retrogradation denotes the reversal mechanism. The gelation of starch contains disaggregated starch molecules. But, the disaggregated amylose and amylopectin chains realign during retrogradation of a starch gel. We could see the retrograde starch after a long-term cooling or storage of the starch …

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Thymus Dependent Antigens

Thymus dependent antigens are also called “T cell-dependent antigens” or “TD-Ags”. These are immunogens that induce antibody’s formation. It is one of the types of B-cell antigen. Naturally occurring antigens are T-cell dependent. Thymus dependent antigens are complex in nature. They are multideterminant antigens due to different epitopes on a cell surface. T-cell recognizes some …

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Difference Between Agarose and Polyacrylamide Gel

The difference between agarose and polyacrylamide gel relies upon factors like origin and molecular complexity. Both gels help in biomolecular separation, due to their porous nature. We can separate, identify and purify different biomolecules using agarose and polyacrylamide gels. 1. Origin: Agarose is a natural polymer extracted from several red seaweeds. So, it is a …

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Chlorination in Wastewater Treatment

Chlorination is a disinfection method used in the wastewater treatment plant. It helps in the destruction of microorganisms from the running wastewater. Microorganisms can be pathogenic or non-pathogenic. Wastewater contains pathogenic enteric microorganisms that impose severe health problems. Typhoid, cholera, dysentery etc., are common waterborne illnesses. And wastewater treatment aims to reduce the possibility of …

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Difference Between Primary and Secondary Metabolites

The difference between primary and secondary metabolites produced by the bacteria lies in their origin and function. Besides bacteria, different plants and fungi produce a wide range of metabolites. This post discusses the differences between the bacteria’s primary and secondary metabolites. Also, we will study the comparison chart, definition and examples between the two. Metabolites …

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Bacteriological Incubator

The bacteriological incubator prominently cultivates a wide range of bacteria under controlled conditions. It has extensive use in research and medical laboratories. Bacteriological incubators provide an enclosed environment for the growth of bacteria. They work under the ideal temperature range of 35°C to 37°C. This post describes the bacteriological incubator’s meaning, principle, operation, and uses. …

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