Botany

Collenchyma Tissue

Collenchyma tissue is a term given by a scientist named Schleiden in the year 1839. It is a kind of simple permanent supportive tissue that confers mechanical strength to the plant. The collenchyma cells appear as elongated cells with a non-uniform thickened cell wall. Collenchymatous cells originate by the modification of parenchyma tissues into the …

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Penicillium

Penicillium is a genus consisting of a group of fungi, which include 354 accepted species. Some Penicillium species are considered doctor fungus as some of the members produce antibiotics, which can inhibit the growth of certain bacteria. Penicillium species are ubiquitous, where many produce potential mycotoxins, few produce medically useful antibiotics, and some are important …

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Mendelian Inheritance

Mendelian inheritance is an approach that explains the traits or characters inherit from one generation to another by the discrete units or genes. “Mendelism” or  Mendelian inheritance was introduced by the Austrian monk Gregor Johann Mendel. Sir Mendel has honoured as “Father of Genetics” for his great efforts to explain the theory of inheritance that …

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Phloem

Phloem is a complex tissue of a plant, first introduced by a scientist Nageli in 1853. It is a part of the plant’s vascular system that involves the translocation of organic molecules from the leaves to the different parts of plants like stem, flowers, fruits and roots. Numerous specialized tissues (vascular tissues) contribute to a …

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Ovule

The ovule is a part of a plant that is popularly known as megasporangium. It is present inside the ovary base, which extends and gives rise to the stalk-like structure called style and finally opens into the stigma. Megasporangium can be defined as a large, sac-like structure, which gives rise to the production of the megaspores …

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Phototropism in Plants

Phototropism in plants is a process where a plant bends in response to sunlight or any other light source. Plants sense light stimuli through their photoreceptors proteins. These specialized protein molecules or photoreceptors form a complex with the light-absorbing pigment (chromophore). When a chromophore absorbs light radiations, it brings changes in the photoreceptors’ structural configuration …

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Rhizopus

Rhizopus is a type of fungus that belongs to the class Zygomycetes, as its species produce zygospore in the sexual reproductive phase. They are also called bread, black or pin mould. These can reproduce by vegetative, asexual and sexual methods through fragmentation, sporangiospores and zygospores formation, respectively. Rhizopus species are cosmopolitan in distribution. It grows …

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Aspergillus

Aspergillus is a common fungus, which is present everywhere (in the soil, air, water etc.), or we can say it is present in a wide range of conditions. Therefore, these are ubiquitous in nature. It consists of several 100-500 species, among which some are economically important, and some are deleterious, i.e. pathogenic. It was named …

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