Microbiology

Bacterial Growth Factors

Bacterial growth factors primarily include temperature, pH, salt concentration, light source, nutritional and gaseous requirement etc. Microorganisms live in diverse natural habitats such as atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The environmental and nutritional factors may favour or restrict the growth of microorganisms. Some microbes survive in extreme conditions or the changing environment, while few can not …

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Bacterial Flagella

Bacterial flagella can define as a locomotory apparatus that helps the bacteria to swim in the liquid nutrient medium. The bacteria possessing flagella refers as “Motile organisms or Flagellates” while those bacteria possessing flagella refers as “Non-motile organisms or Non-flagellates”. The width of bacterial flagella is much thinner and simpler than the eukaryotic flagella. The …

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Synchronous Culture

Synchronous culture is a technique of growing microorganisms at the same stage of their growth cycle in the controlled conditions. The results are made by one of the two methods (forced or mechanical selection methods). Forced techniques induce synchrony in microorganisms by shock treatment (temperature variation) or chemical treatment (nutritional difference). In contrast, the mechanical …

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B1 Vitamin

B1 Vitamin also refers to as “Thiamin” which is a kind of water-soluble vitamin and belongs to the family of the vitamin B complex. It is naturally present in a variety of foods like poultry products, fortified cereals, nuts etc. and also available as a dietary supplement. Thiamin is a coenzyme of vitamin B1 that …

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 belongs to the Vitamin-B group, which are of eight kinds of viz. vitamin B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, B-7, B-9, and B-12. Structurally, vitamin B-12 is the largest among all other vitamins of the same group. It performs a significant role in brain health, functioning of nervous system, and synthesis of RBC. Vitamin …

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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin, which belongs to the family of the vitamin B complex. It is named as “Vitamin B6” because it comprises six vitamers, namely pyridoxine, alcohol, pyridoxal, an aldehyde, pyridoxamine and 2, 5’-phosphate esters. Naturally, it is present as a glycosylated form in fruits and vegetables or exhibit reduced bioavailability. Pyridoxine …

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Production of Penicillin

The production of penicillin is used commercially to treat various infections caused by the gram-positive aerobic bacteria. Penicillin is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic that is found effective against many gram-positive bacteria, especially Streptococcus and Staphylococcus  species. There are approximately 100 penicillins that have been synthesized so far. For the production of penicillin, different strains of Penicillium …

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Flagella Staining

Flagella staining is a technique which examines the presence and arrangement of bacterial flagella under the microscope. It is a specialized staining method, which requires a combination of special reagents to stain the bacterial flagella. The flagella appears as a narrow appendages, which cannot be visualized by employing common stains. Therefore, the flagella staining makes …

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Negative Staining

Negative staining also refers to as “Indirect staining”. This technique helps to visualize various microorganisms by using both light and electron microscopy. In bright field microscopy, the method of indirect staining involves the use of the liquid medium (black coloured dyes) like Nigrosin and India ink that stains the background, leaving the bacteria unstained. But, …

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