Microbiology

Nuclear Pore Complex

The nuclear pore complex encases the nuclear pore, which facilitates the translocation of macromolecules within the cell. A nuclear envelope possesses two concentric outer and inner layers fused with the NPCs. Both the phospholipid nuclear membranes are isolated by the perinuclear space in between. The nuclear membrane works as a selective barrier protecting inner nuclear …

Nuclear Pore Complex Read More »

Difference Between Induction and Repression

The difference between induction and repression of operon is mainly characterized by the factors like regulation and the fundamental role of both systems. The operon system in prokaryotes regulates the expression of enzymes necessary to turn on or off the metabolic pathway. The regulatory gene of the inducible operon forms an active repressor protein whose …

Difference Between Induction and Repression Read More »

Tryptophan Operon

Tryptophan operon is found within the genome of E.coli, which carries a set of genes constructing an essential amino acid, tryptophan. Sometimes, it is also termed as trp operon. Unlike lactose or lac operon, trp operon is a repressible system discussed in this article. A scientist named Charles Yanofsky and his co-workers explicitly studied the …

Tryptophan Operon Read More »

Nutrient Agar Media

Nutrient agar is a standard media used for growing and isolating a broad class of microorganisms. It is the most popular media generally available in all laboratories to enumerate different bacteria. The enumeration of different bacteria from different samples like soil, water, sewage, food etc., can be carried out by using such media by employing …

Nutrient Agar Media Read More »

Fluorescence Microscopy

Fluorescence microscopy uses a fluorescence mechanism to generate an image and optical sectioning for high resolution. It is available in different designs. The epifluorescence microscopes have the most common and simple setup, while confocal microscopes have a sophisticated setup. Epifluorescence microscope has prominent applicability in different laboratories, which allow excitation of reactive dyes and detection …

Fluorescence Microscopy Read More »

Autoclave Sterilization

Autoclave or steam sterilization is a moist heat sterilizing technique that has prominent applicability in laboratories, industries, and hospitals to purify different samples, equipment and glassware. It uses high-pressure steam to destroy bacterial cells and fungal spores. It is one of the types of steam sterilizers that removes contaminants from the goods as a regular …

Autoclave Sterilization Read More »

PCR Amplification

PCR amplification or Molecular photocopying is a popular method used to amplify the short DNA fragments. PCR is an acronym used for Polymerase chain reaction. It provides a modern, inexpensive, and rapid method of amplifying specific DNA sequences, while the traditional method was quite time-consuming (requires several days or a week). Polymerase chain reaction can yield million …

PCR Amplification Read More »

Gel Filtration Chromatography

Gel filtration chromatography is one of the chromatography methods that facilitate particles separation based on molecular size. Size exclusion, molecular sieve and gel permeation chromatography are the alternative names of gel filtration chromatography. The porous gel matrix is the stationary phase that contains a hydrated, sponge-like material. Oppositely, the buffer solution or aqueous phase functions …

Gel Filtration Chromatography Read More »

Macrophages

Macrophages differentiate from monocytes. They are specialized immune cells that primarily recognize the foreign particles and cell remains through toll-like receptors. Then, they phagocytose foreign particles by amoeboid movements through phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a functional role in presenting foreign particles to the T cells and thereby causing the destruction of potential pathogens. They activate …

Macrophages Read More »

T Cell

T cell or thymus cell lymphocyte is one of the immune cells, which grows in the thymus gland. It performs a significant role in stimulating an adaptive immune response. T lymphocytes are different from the other immune cells in having T-cell receptors or TCRs on their cell surface. TCRs exist as a heterodimer protein complex …

T Cell Read More »