Vernalization

Vernalization refers to the process of growing flowers and fruits through a phase of cold treatment. It reduces the time period of the juvenile vegetative growth phase in the plants. The active meristematic cells of the shoot apex, root apex, embryo tips etc., participate in the production of stimulus (Vernalin). The term vernalization has been …

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Collenchyma Tissue

Collenchyma tissue is a term given by a scientist named Schleiden in the year 1839. It is a kind of simple permanent supportive tissue that confers mechanical strength to the plant. The collenchyma cells appear as elongated cells with a non-uniform thickened cell wall. Collenchymatous cells originate by the modification of parenchyma tissues into the …

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Membrane Proteins

Membrane proteins are the binding proteins that mediate the conduction of ions or molecules into and out of the cell membrane. Integral, peripheral and lipid-anchored are the three typical membrane proteins. The membrane protein is the principal constituent of the cell membrane that contributes to the plasma membrane structure. The union of membrane proteins and …

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Difference Between Cell Wall and Cell Membrane

The difference between the cell wall and the cell membrane is primarily due to the differences in three factors like composition, function and permeability. The cell wall composition mainly comprises proteins and carbohydrates, whereas a cell or plasma membrane comprises lipids, proteins, and some amount of carbohydrate. The functional role of the cell wall is to …

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Difference Between Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms

The difference between unicellular and multicellular organisms is primarily due to cell composition, function, and arrangement. Unicellular organisms exist as an individual cell, whereas multicellular organisms possess a group of specialized cells. Unicellular organisms mediate all their cellular activities by a single cell itself, while multicellular organisms perform specific cell activities through their specialized or …

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Penicillium

Penicillium is a genus consisting of a group of fungi, which include 354 accepted species. Some Penicillium species are considered doctor fungus as some of the members produce antibiotics, which can inhibit the growth of certain bacteria. Penicillium species are ubiquitous, where many produce potential mycotoxins, few produce medically useful antibiotics, and some are important …

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Difference Between Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins

The difference between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins is primarily due to the difference in absorption and excretion rates inside a body. Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins are the two major classes or groups of vitamins required to maintain good health. Absorption: Water-soluble vitamins are readily absorbed in the small intestine, while fat-soluble vitamins are first absorbed …

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Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters refer to the chemical messenger molecules, which contain amino acids, amines, purines and neuropeptides. Its activity may trigger or restrict nerve impulse production. Its synthesis occurs endogenously by the presynaptic neuron. Neurotransmitters release out upon membrane stimulation. They ensure neurotransmission by transmitting an action potential beyond the chemical synapse. Our nervous system uses neurotransmitters …

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Synapse

Synapse is a term pioneered by Charles S. Sherrington in 1897. It is derived from the Greek word “Synapsis”, which means to conjugate or clasp. The communication between the neurons is through synapses only, which facilitate nerve signal transmission from one to the next cell. A scientist named Sanford Palay observed the ultrastructure of neural …

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