Germination of Plant

Germination of a plant refers to a phenomenon in which a seed germinates to form a new seeding or plant. The germination process results in the emergence of the radicle (primary root) and plumule (primary shoot). Before germination, the seed remains dormant in the soil. Then, under favourable conditions (optimum temperature, oxygen, light, water etc.), a …

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Anther

The anther is a part of the flower’s male reproductive system or stamen. It carries the reproductive structures or the male gametes (pollen grains), which germinate and cause the fertilization of an ovule. A male reproductive part of a flower typically consists of two elements (filament and anther). A filament appears as a long, slender …

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Pollination in Flower

Pollination in a flower is a transferring mechanism of pollen grains from the anther (flower’s male reproductory part or stamen) to the stigma (flower’s female reproductive part or gynoecium). It is the primary stage that results in the flower’s fertilization. The passage of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma occurs via pollinating agents …

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Bilayer Cell Membrane

The bilayer cell membrane is a membranous structure, which consists of two phospholipid layers. Thus, a cell membrane also refers to a phospholipid bilayer membrane composed of many phospholipid molecules. A structure of a phospholipid molecule consists of a hydrophilic head, a phosphate molecule, a glycerol molecule and two hydrophobic fatty acid tail. The phospholipid …

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Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium botulinum is a clinically significant bacteria, which causes a sporadic but severe disease called “Botulism”. It produces a particular type of exotoxin that affects the nervous system by inhibiting the neuromuscular junction’s activity. Therefore, the botulinum toxin behaves as a neurotoxin, which blocks the release of a neurotransmitter (acetylcholine). Acetylcholine is a chemical compound …

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Botulism Disease

Botulism disease is caused by a bacterial agent, Clostridium botulinum, that produces an exotoxin. Clostridium botulinum causes bacterial food poisoning or intoxication as it releases exotoxin. Exotoxin acts as a neurotoxin, which disables the normal functioning of the nervous system. Thus, an exotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is called botulinum neurotoxin, which blocks the synthesis of the …

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Acid Fast Staining

Acid-fast staining was originally pioneered by a scientist named Paul Ehrlich in the year 1882. Later, it was modified by Ziehl and Neelson in 1883. Thus, acid-fast staining is also called Ziehl Neelson staining. It is a type of differential staining method used to distinguish between the acid-fast and non-acid fast bacteria. Mycobacterium is an …

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