Supriya N

Bilayer Cell Membrane

The bilayer cell membrane is a membranous structure, which consists of two phospholipid layers. Thus, a cell membrane also refers to a phospholipid bilayer membrane composed of many phospholipid molecules. A structure of a phospholipid molecule consists of a hydrophilic head, a phosphate molecule, a glycerol molecule and two hydrophobic fatty acid tail. The phospholipid …

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Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium botulinum is a clinically significant bacteria, which causes a sporadic but severe disease called “Botulism”. It produces a particular type of exotoxin that affects the nervous system by inhibiting the neuromuscular junction’s activity. Therefore, the botulinum toxin behaves as a neurotoxin, which blocks the release of a neurotransmitter (acetylcholine). Acetylcholine is a chemical compound …

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Botulism Disease

Botulism disease is caused by a bacterial agent, Clostridium botulinum, that produces an exotoxin. Clostridium botulinum causes bacterial food poisoning or intoxication as it releases exotoxin. Exotoxin acts as a neurotoxin, which disables the normal functioning of the nervous system. Thus, an exotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is called botulinum neurotoxin, which blocks the synthesis of the …

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Acid Fast Staining

Acid-fast staining was originally pioneered by a scientist named Paul Ehrlich in the year 1882. Later, it was modified by Ziehl and Neelson in 1883. Thus, acid-fast staining is also called Ziehl Neelson staining. It is a type of differential staining method used to distinguish between the acid-fast and non-acid fast bacteria. Mycobacterium is an …

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Excision Repair

Excision repair is one of the types of DNA repair systems. It is an enzymatic process, which follows a cut, copy and paste mechanism. A cutting mechanism involves removing a damaged part or unusual bases by specific enzymes like glycosylases and helicases. Then, a copying mechanism uses DNA polymerase. DNAP-I uses the template DNA to …

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Gynoecium

Gynoecium, carpel or pistil primarily comprises three structures, namely stigma, style and ovary. It accounts for the flower’s female reproductive part that carries the female gametes or ovules within an ovary. Towards the gynoecium base, the pedicle or thalamus provides support to the female reproductive part and the other parts as well. An ovary is …

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