Supriya N

Tropic Movements in Plants

Tropic movements in plants are the types of paratonic or induced movements. Paratonic movements include both tropic and nastic movements. In this module, we will only discuss the tropic movements in plants. Various external stimuli or environmental factors like light, gravity, water, temperature, and other factors influence tropic movement. The phenomenon of tropic movements in …

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Pedigree Analysis Chart

A pedigree analysis chart provides an important tool to study the inheritance of genes. It also gives precise information about the family members through diagrammatic representation. Sometimes, it is also known as the “family or genealogic tree“. A pedigree chart uses internationally accepted symbols, lines, numbers and letters To illustrate different individuals, their interrelationship, the …

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Difference Between Osmotic Pressure and Osmotic Potential

The difference between osmotic pressure and osmotic potential is characterized by the properties like a chemical equation, effect of solute particles and types of system where it develops. The chemical equation for the osmotic pressure is equal to the product of molar concentration, gas constant and temperature. In contrast, the chemical equation for the osmotic …

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Fed-Batch Culture

Fed-batch culture is a modified batch culture method or an intermediate of batch and continuous fermentation techniques. Like batch culture, products of the fed-batch culture are harvested in batches, i.e. after the batch time. However, the substrate is added periodically throughout the cultivation, like the continuous fermentation method. Although, the amount of substrate required to …

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Mode of Nutrition in Algae

The mode of nutrition in algae is primarily of three types, namely photoautotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic. Algae show some properties similar to plants due to the presence of chloroplasts and eukaryotic cellular construction. Also, they share some features similar to animals in having flagella and centriole. Algae represent a group of highly diversified organisms that …

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Alternaria Fungi

Alternaria fungi constitute a major group of plant pathogens. They belong to the phylum Deuteromycetes or Fungi imperfecti due to the lack of sexual stage in their life cycle. Thus, Alternaria species only reproduce asexually by conidiospores, and the process is called an anamorph state. The genus Alternaria has nearly 299 species. They are ubiquitous. …

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Chemical Mutagens

Chemical mutagens refer to the chemical agents that impose severe genetic abnormalities by directly or indirectly interacting with the DNA. DNA damage and alternations in nucleotide sequence prevalently result, after the treatment of nucleobases with base analogues and base altering agents. In addition, some chemical mutagens like intercalating agents may distort the DNA structure. Base …

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Laminar Airflow Chamber

A laminar airflow chamber refers to an enclosed cabinet, which is equipped with a HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filtered airflow system. It provides an aseptic environment to perform different experiments. Laminar airflow cabinet circulates unidirectional airflow with little or no turbulence at a uniform velocity between 0.3-0.5 m/s. It is extensively used in laboratories to …

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