Microbiology

HIV

HIV stands for Human Immuno Deficiency Virus. It belongs to the group of Retrovirus, which consist of positive single-stranded RNA. HIV was first isolated from the patient’s lymph node by Montagnier and Barre Sinoussi who won Nobel prize in the year 2008. The symmetry of HIV is icosahedral. Human Immuno Deficiency virus is enveloped and diploid. …

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AIDs

AIDs stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. The causative agent of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is HIV  that stands for Human Immuno Deficiency Virus. AIDs is a severe and life-threatening disease that has no cure but could be controlled by proper vaccination and medication. ART (Anti-Retroviral Therapy) is the only control measure that uses a combination …

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ELISA Test

ELISA test stands for Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay. It is a type of serological test and immunoassay technique. In the ELISA test, an enzyme links to the antibodies particularly to detect the presence of proteins like antigens. The ELISA method was evolved from the RIA technique in the 1960s. Therefore, the ELISA technique is more or …

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Gram Staining

Gram staining is used widely and the most popular method in laboratories. It is the type of differential staining, which makes the use of more than one stains to differentiate the bacteria. The gram staining method was first given in 1884 by the Danish scientist and Physician Han’s Christian Gram. The Gram stain is the differential …

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Difference Between Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

The difference between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is mainly due to the following factors like: Cell wall difference Staining difference Cell wall difference: Gram-positive bacteria contain high peptidoglycan content (70-80%) and low lipid content (1-4%). It lacks lipopolysaccharide and porins that are present on the outer membrane, and it has less periplasmic space. Gram-negative bacteria …

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Transduction

Transduction is a mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs in bacteria where the incorporation of host cell DNA and the bacteriophage genetic material occurs, which results in the formation of recombinant DNA. It was given by scientists in 1952 by Norton Zinder and Joshua Lederberg. Bacterial transduction occurs through generalized and specialized transduction. In generalized …

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Difference between Paper and Thin Layer Chromatography

The differences between the paper and thin layer chromatography are due to the following properties like: The principle for the particle separation Use of stationary phase The main principle behind the particle separation in the paper chromatography is partition type, whereas in thin layer chromatography it is adsorption type. Paper chromatography makes the use of …

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Difference Between Humoral and Cellular Immunity

The difference between humoral and cellular immunity are mainly due to two factors like the type of an immune response and the regulation of immunity. Type of Immune response: Humoral immunity produces an antibody-mediated immune response, whereas cellular immunity produces a cell-mediated immune response. Regulation of Immunity: B cell mainly regulates the humoral immunity, whereas …

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