Microbiology

Taxonomic Categories

Taxonomic categories can define as the hierarchical classification of the different individuals into a more specific sequence by categorizing them into seven categories starting from the origin to the organisms. The taxonomic category was first given by the scientist Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. Linnaeus also developed a system called binomial nomenclature. Linnaean hierarchy, …

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Arabinose Operon

Arabinose operon is one of the regulatory systems found in the bacterial cell (E.coli), facilitating arabinose catalysis. L-arabinose operon and ARA-operon are the two alternative names of the arabinose operon. Ara-operon system provides energy to the cell by the breakdown of arabinose into xylulose 5-phosphate. Arabinose is a 5-C sugar or aldopentose that provides energy …

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Microbial Food Spoilage

The microbial food spoilage is defined as the contamination of food by the growth and enzymatic activity of microorganisms. Food spoilage is the process, in which the quality of the food deteriorates to some extent that renders food unacceptable for human consumption. Food spoilage occurs due to the microbial attack, enzymatic digestion, chemical degradation, physical …

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Isolation of Bacteria

Isolation of bacteria is a primary method to separate different groups of microorganisms. It is the method that allows us to discriminate different groups of bacteria based on the growth pattern. Different bacteria grow differently on the different nutrient medium, depending on their growth requirements and other factors like temperature, pH, oxygen availability, etc. Isolation …

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Mu Phage

Mu phage is also called temperate or transposable phage because it causes transposition of the genes into the host cell, at the time of multiplication. It mainly attacks the members or species of enterobacteria family, and that’s why also known as “Enterobacterial phage Mu”. The transposition of Mu-phage occurs by either of the two mechanisms: …

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HIV

HIV stands for Human Immuno Deficiency Virus. It belongs to the group of Retrovirus, which consist of positive single-stranded RNA. HIV was first isolated from the patient’s lymph node by Montagnier and Barre Sinoussi who won Nobel prize in the year 2008. The symmetry of HIV is icosahedral. Human Immuno Deficiency virus is enveloped and diploid. …

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AIDs

AIDs stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. The causative agent of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is HIV  that stands for Human Immuno Deficiency Virus. AIDs is a severe and life-threatening disease that has no cure but could be controlled by proper vaccination and medication. ART (Anti-Retroviral Therapy) is the only control measure that uses a combination …

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