Microbiology

Acetic Acid Production

Acetic acid production refers to the production of acetic acid or vinegar through two steps modification via two different microorganisms. The first step involves the conversion of sugar into ethanol by the yeast (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In the second step, oxidation of ethanol into acetic acid takes place by the bacteria like Acetobacter, Gluconabacter sp. …

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Nucleotide

A nucleotide is a compound, which can form a polynucleotide chain by the union of nitrogenous bases and sugar-phosphate group. Monomers of nucleotide units are connected via a covalent phosphodiester bond. Nitrogenous bases, i.e. purines and pyrimidine, are attached via weak hydrogen bonds. The bases link with a deoxyribose pentose sugar via an N-glycosidic bond. …

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Continuous Culture

The continuous culture is an open cultivation process, in which the cell growth is maintained in the continuous mode of operations. It works as an open cultivation system, in which the fresh nutrient medium is continuously added into the culture vessel rather than recycling and reuse of the nutrients or substrate. There is an inlet pump …

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Transfer RNA

Transfer RNA is an RNA type that acts as the intermediary element, and plays a significant role in the loading and transferring amino acids to the site of protein synthesis, i.e. Ribosome. The t-RNA first decodes the information or the nucleotide sequences carried by the m-RNA. Therefore, t-RNA also plays a major role in translating …

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