Microbiology

Difference Between Cyclic and Noncyclic Photophosphorylation

The difference between cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation is mainly due to the following factors: Type of photosynthesis: Cyclic photophosphorylation occurs during anoxygenic photosynthesis, while noncyclic photophosphorylation occurs in oxygenic photosynthesis. ATP synthesis: ATP synthesis during the cyclic electron flow of anoxygenic photosynthesis is known as cyclic photophosphorylation. ATP production during the noncyclic electron flow of …

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Reaction Centre

Reaction centre refers to the site of photosynthetic reactions. Chlorophyll and pheophytin are the pigments found in a reaction centre. It comprises protein pigments that mediates light absorption and excitation of an electron to the higher energy state. Photosynthetic organisms like green plants, many bacteria and algae have membrane-bound protein complexes or reaction centres that …

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Prions

Prions are the sub-viral agents, which function as proteinaceous infectious particles without a genomic RNA or DNA. They are the mysterious pathogens whose accumulation within neurons cause severe fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. Prions solely possess PrP proteins. The term prion was coined by a scientist named Stanley Prusiner. Prion diseases …

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Viroids

Viroids are sub-viral agents, which exist as small infectious particles. They are somewhat similar to viruses but possesses some unique properties in their evolutionary origin, morphology and functions. In 1917, Diener was the first scientist who discovered and termed the non-bacterial infectious plant pathogens as “Viroids”. Potato spindle tuber viroids (PSTV) was the first viroid …

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Tobacco Mosaic Virus

Tobacco mosaic virus or TMV belongs to the Tobamovirus group, which causes mosaic-like symptoms on tobacco leaves. TMV is a plant virus that disseminates via artificial inoculation rather than insect vectors. It was the first virus identified and the first virus ever purified. Since the late 19th century, it was believed that a non-bacterial infectious …

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Bacterial Growth Factors

Bacterial growth factors primarily include temperature, pH, salt concentration, light source, nutritional and gaseous requirement etc. Microorganisms live in diverse natural habitats such as the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The environmental and nutritional factors may favour or restrict the growth of microorganisms. Some microbes survive in extreme conditions or the changing environment, while few can …

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Bacterial Flagella

Bacterial flagella refer to the locomotory apparatuses, which help the bacteria to swim in the liquid nutrient medium. The bacteria possessing flagella are the motile organisms or flagellates. Conversely, the non-motile organisms or non-flagellates lack flagella. The width of bacterial flagella is much thinner and simpler than the eukaryotic flagella. The location, number and arrangement …

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Synchronous Culture

Synchronous culture is a technique of growing microorganisms at the same stage of their growth cycle under controlled conditions. Forced or mechanical selection methods induce synchrony in the microbial culture. Forced techniques induce synchrony in microorganisms by the shock treatment (temperature variation) or chemical treatment (nutritional difference). In contrast, the mechanical method uses filtration or …

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B1 Vitamin

B1 Vitamin or Thiamin is a kind of water-soluble vitamin that belongs to the vitamin B complex group. It was the first member of the vitamin B family isolated in 1926. Foods like poultry products, fortified cereals, nuts etc., are rich in thiamin content. Dietary supplements are also available to fulfil the demand for vitamin …

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