Microbiology

Fluorescence Microscopy

Fluorescence microscopy uses a fluorescence mechanism to generate an image and optical sectioning for high resolution. It is available in different designs. The epifluorescence microscopes have the most common and simple setup, while confocal microscopes have a sophisticated setup. Epifluorescence microscope has prominent applicability in different laboratories, which allow excitation of reactive dyes and detection …

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Autoclave Sterilization

Autoclave or steam sterilization is a moist heat sterilizing technique that has prominent applicability in laboratories, industries, and hospitals to purify different samples, equipment and glassware. It uses high-pressure steam to destroy bacterial cells and fungal spores. It is one of the types of steam sterilizers that removes contaminants from the goods as a regular …

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PCR Amplification

PCR amplification or Molecular photocopying is a popular method used to amplify the short DNA fragments. PCR is an acronym used for Polymerase chain reaction. It provides a modern, inexpensive, and rapid method of amplifying specific DNA sequences, while the traditional method was quite time-consuming (requires several days or a week). Polymerase chain reaction can yield million …

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Gel Filtration Chromatography

Gel filtration chromatography is one of the chromatography methods that facilitate particles separation based on molecular size. Size exclusion, molecular sieve and gel permeation chromatography are the alternative names of gel filtration chromatography. The porous gel matrix is the stationary phase that contains a hydrated, sponge-like material. Oppositely, the buffer solution or aqueous phase functions …

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Macrophages

Macrophages differentiate from monocytes. They are specialized immune cells that primarily recognize the foreign particles and cell remains through toll-like receptors. Then, they phagocytose foreign particles by amoeboid movements through phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a functional role in presenting foreign particles to the T cells and thereby causing the destruction of potential pathogens. They activate …

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T Cell

T cell or thymus cell lymphocyte is one of the immune cells, which grows in the thymus gland. It performs a significant role in stimulating an adaptive immune response. T lymphocytes are different from the other immune cells in having T-cell receptors or TCRs on their cell surface. TCRs exist as a heterodimer protein complex …

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Difference Between Cyclic and Noncyclic Photophosphorylation

The difference between cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation is mainly due to the following factors: Type of photosynthesis: Cyclic photophosphorylation occurs during anoxygenic photosynthesis, while noncyclic photophosphorylation occurs in oxygenic photosynthesis. ATP synthesis: ATP synthesis during the cyclic electron flow of anoxygenic photosynthesis is known as cyclic photophosphorylation. ATP production during the noncyclic electron flow of …

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Reaction Centre

Reaction centre refers to the site of photosynthetic reactions. Chlorophyll and pheophytin are the pigments found in a reaction centre. It comprises protein pigments that mediates light absorption and excitation of an electron to the higher energy state. Photosynthetic organisms like green plants, many bacteria and algae have membrane-bound protein complexes or reaction centres that …

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Prions

Prions are the sub-viral agents, which function as proteinaceous infectious particles without a genomic RNA or DNA. They are the mysterious pathogens whose accumulation within neurons cause severe fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. Prions solely possess PrP proteins. The term prion was coined by a scientist named Stanley Prusiner. Prion diseases …

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Viroids

Viroids are sub-viral agents, which exist as small infectious particles. They are somewhat similar to viruses but possesses some unique properties in their evolutionary origin, morphology and functions. In 1917, Diener was the first scientist who discovered and termed the non-bacterial infectious plant pathogens as “Viroids”. Potato spindle tuber viroids (PSTV) was the first viroid …

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