Microbiology

Voges Proskauer Test

Voges Proskauer test depends upon the formation of a neutral end product “Acetoin” in the MRVP media, which directly relies on the breakdown of glucose into an intermediate product “Pyruvic acid”. The pyruvic acid undergoes butylene glycol pathway and produces an end product named acetyl methyl carbinol or acetoin. It is named after the contribution …

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Methyl Red Test

Methyl red test differentiates whether the organism can undergo mixed acid fermentation or not, by the supply of glucose. Organisms that can ferment glucose will give positive MR test by producing a large amount of acid, and some organisms give negative MR test. It also helps to identify and classify between the different genera of …

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Indole Test

Indole test is a biochemical test that helps in the identification and classification of bacteria based on their tendency to decompose amino acid (Tryptophan) into a compound refers as “Indole”. It is a part of a biochemical method popularly known as IMViC test, where ‘I’ stands for indole test. Indole is one of the end …

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Bacterial Conjugation

Bacterial conjugation is a gene transfer mechanism, first introduced by the scientists named Lederberg and Tatum in the year 1946. The conjugation method was first studied in Escherichia coli. The formation of a conjugation tube is the characteristic feature in a conjugation mechanism. Instead of transduction and transformation, some bacteria passes the genetic information from …

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Centrifugation Method

Centrifugation method is a process of separating different components or the suspended particles from the homogenous solution, by the practice of centrifugal force. It separates particles based on their physical properties like size, shape, density etc. and chemical properties like molecular weight and viscosity. A natural gravitational force can also concentrate particles but in an …

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SOS Repair

SOS repair or “bypass” or “Emergency” repair is one of the DNA repair mechanisms, introduced in the year 1975, by a scientist named Miroslav Radman. It serves as a regulatory system, which comprises of many complex inducer proteins that repair the damaged DNA. SOS repair primarily recover the DNA damage caused due to the environmental stresses. …

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Oxidation Pond

Oxidation pond or lagoon or water stabilization pond is a type of secondary wastewater treatment, which treats the waste or sewage coming from industries, residential areas etc. It makes the use of microorganisms like bacteria, algae and light energy (sunlight) to stabilize the wastewater. Oxidation pond is constructed 1-1.5 m deep inside the soil along with the …

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Chromomycosis

Chromomycosis, or Chronic subcutaneous mycosis, is a severe fungal infectious disease that infects the skin’s subcutaneous tissue. A diverse group of dematiaceous or black fungi cause chromomycosis. Dematiaceous fungi are the heterogeneous fungal group, which usually form lesions or abscess in the subcutaneous tissue. Interaction of host tissue with the fungus shows a non-specific kind …

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