Corolla in Plants

Corolla in plants is a second whorl, which completes the perianth in combination with a layer of the calyx. It generally comprises several petals whose primary function is similar to the role of the calyx, which protects the flower reproductive structures. Corolla is also a sterile part of the flower. It can be tubular, funnel-shaped, …

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Calyx in Plants

Calyx in plants merely refers to a sterile outermost whorl or non-reproductive structure, which constitutes perianth. A group of sepals unitedly forms a calyx. Thus, sepals are nothing but the modified leaves, which account for forming the flower’s outermost whorl. It can be regular or irregular in size and shape, and the number may also …

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Phytochrome in Plants

Phytochrome in plants exists as a soluble protein pigment, which carries out photomorphogenic growth. It is present almost in all eukaryotic plants and first discovered by a scientist named Sterling Hendricks and Herry Borthwick in 1940-1960. Warren Butler gave the term phytochrome. In 1983, Peter and Clark were the two scientists who introduced chemical purification …

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Photoperiodism

Photoperiodism merely refers to the potential of the plant to incite flowering relative to the changes in the photoperiod. Thus, photoperiod is a light duration or the length of day and night, while photoperiodism is the effect of light duration on the plant’s growth. Depending upon the photoperiodic effect on flowering, the plants are grouped …

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Vernalization

Vernalization refers to the process of growing flowers and fruits through a phase of cold treatment. It reduces the time period of the juvenile vegetative growth phase in the plants. The active meristematic cells of the shoot apex, root apex, embryo tips etc., participate in the production of stimulus (Vernalin). The term vernalization has been …

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Collenchyma Tissue

Collenchyma tissue is a term given by a scientist named Schleiden in the year 1839. It is a kind of simple permanent supportive tissue that confers mechanical strength to the plant. The collenchyma cells appear as elongated cells with a non-uniform thickened cell wall. Collenchymatous cells originate by the modification of parenchyma tissues into the …

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Membrane Proteins

Membrane proteins are the binding proteins that mediate the conduction of ions or molecules into and out of the cell membrane. Integral, peripheral and lipid-anchored are the three typical membrane proteins. The membrane protein is the principal constituent of the cell membrane that contributes to the plasma membrane structure. The union of membrane proteins and …

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Difference Between Cell Wall and Cell Membrane

The difference between the cell wall and the cell membrane is primarily due to the differences in three factors like composition, function and permeability. The cell wall composition mainly comprises proteins and carbohydrates, whereas a cell or plasma membrane comprises lipids, proteins, and some amount of carbohydrate. The functional role of the cell wall is to …

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Difference Between Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms

The difference between unicellular and multicellular organisms is primarily due to cell composition, function, and arrangement. Unicellular organisms exist as an individual cell, whereas multicellular organisms possess a group of specialized cells. Unicellular organisms mediate all their cellular activities by a single cell itself, while multicellular organisms perform specific cell activities through their specialized or …

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