Microbiology

Spoilage of Fish

Spoilage of fish is a process of deterioration in the quality of fish, which changes its appearance, odour and taste. The breakdown of biomolecules like proteins, amino acids and fats in the fish are the factors responsible for fish spoilage. Thus, a fish can be spoiled by either chemical or biological degradation. In chemical degradation, …

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Endospore Staining

Endospore staining is a type of special staining method, which makes use of differential staining procedure to highlight the presence or absence of endospores. For the staining of endospores, the first article was published by Dorner in the year 1922. Later, the Dorner method of staining endospores has been modified by two scientists, Schaeffar and …

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Capsule Staining

Capsule staining is one of the staining methods, which creates contrast in the microscopic image either by staining bacterial cells and background or staining the capsule only. Therefore, capsule staining can be done by two methods, namely positive and negative staining methods. Positive staining method either stain a capsule only or stain both the capsule …

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Simple Staining

Simple staining is one of the conventional staining techniques. From the name, it is quite clear that it is a very simple or direct staining method that uses a single stain only. The microorganisms are invisible to the naked eye, and to make them visible, staining is performed that gives divergence to a microscopic image. …

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Acetic Acid Production

Acetic acid production refers to the production of acetic acid or vinegar through two steps modification via two different microorganisms. The first step involves the conversion of sugar into ethanol by the yeast (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In the second step, oxidation of ethanol into acetic acid takes place by the bacteria like Acetobacter, Gluconabacter sp. …

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