Microbiology

SOS Repair

SOS repair or “bypass” or “Emergency” repair is one of the DNA repair mechanisms introduced in 1975 by a scientist named Miroslav Radman. SOS repair primarily recovers the DNA damage caused due to environmental stresses. It serves as a regulatory system, which comprises many complex inducer proteins that repair the damaged DNA. SOS system also …

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Oxidation Pond

Oxidation pond or lagoon or water stabilization pond is a secondary wastewater treatment that treats waste or sewage coming from industries, residential areas, etc. It uses microorganisms like bacteria, algae and light energy (sunlight) to stabilize the wastewater. The oxidation pond is constructed 1-1.5 m deep inside the soil and provided with inlet and outlet systems. …

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Chromomycosis

Chromomycosis, or Chronic subcutaneous mycosis, is a severe fungal infectious disease that infects the skin’s subcutaneous tissue. A diverse group of dematiaceous or black fungi cause chromomycosis. Dematiaceous fungi are the heterogeneous fungal group, which usually form lesions or abscess in the subcutaneous tissue. Interaction of host tissue with the fungus shows a non-specific kind …

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Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium botulinum is a clinically significant bacteria, which causes a sporadic but severe disease called “Botulism”. It produces a particular type of exotoxin that affects the nervous system by inhibiting the neuromuscular junction’s activity. Therefore, the botulinum toxin behaves as a neurotoxin, which blocks the release of a neurotransmitter (acetylcholine). Acetylcholine is a chemical compound …

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Botulism Disease

Botulism disease is caused by a bacterial agent, Clostridium botulinum, that produces an exotoxin. Clostridium botulinum causes bacterial food poisoning or intoxication as it releases exotoxin. Exotoxin acts as a neurotoxin, which disables the normal functioning of the nervous system. Thus, an exotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is called botulinum neurotoxin, which blocks the synthesis of the …

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Acid Fast Staining

Acid-fast staining was originally pioneered by a scientist named Paul Ehrlich in the year 1882. Later, it was modified by Ziehl and Neelson in 1883. Thus, acid-fast staining is also called Ziehl Neelson staining. It is a type of differential staining method used to distinguish between acid-fast and non-acid-fast bacteria. Mycobacterium is an acid-fast bacterium …

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Excision Repair

Excision repair is one of the types of DNA repair systems. It is an enzymatic process, which follows a cut, copy and paste mechanism. A cutting mechanism involves removing a damaged part or unusual bases by specific enzymes like glycosylases and helicases. Then, a copying mechanism uses DNA polymerase. DNAP-I uses the template DNA to …

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