Microbiology

Lac-Operon

Lac-operon is a concept which involves regulation of protein synthesis or the synthesis of an enzyme by the set of genes. This concept can be well studied by the gene expression in prokaryotes like E.coli and other bacteria. The concept of Lac-operon was first explained by Jacob and Monad in E.coli. Lac- operon simply refers …

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Ozone Depletion

Ozone depletion is the process of destruction of the ozone layer which can cause adverse effects on the living forms by many pollutants releases out from the vehicles, industries etc. Ozone layer depletion is one of the major environmental issues which is getting thinner day by day as a result of increasing pollution. Before, knowing …

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Bacteriophage

Definition: Bacteriophage (Bacterio: means bacteria and Phage: means invaders or eaters) is a virus that attacks the bacterial cell. These phages show a parasitic relationship with the bacterial host cell. Bacteriophages not only replicate within the host cell (bacteria) but also controls the machinery of the host. These are ubiquitous in nature. History of Bacteriophage …

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Rhizosphere

The rhizosphere is a term which was first introduced by a scientist L.Hiltner. The rhizosphere is the region that is a few distances (2-80mm) extended from the root system. This zone favours the physical and chemical activity of microorganisms and responsible for the intense microbial activity. The rate of microbial activity strongly influences by the …

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Difference Between Passive and Active Transport

The difference between passive and active transport is mainly due to the two properties like the movement of particles and the use of ATP. The movement of particles: Movement of particles from high to low concentration occurs in passive diffusion, whereas the movement of particles from low to high concentration occurs in active transport. Use …

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Cyanobacteria

Definition: Cyanobacteria represents the major group of photosynthetic bacteria that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. It releases oxygen and uses water as an electron-donating substrate, i.e. splits water molecule to release oxygen. Other than this, they are also capable of nitrogen-fixing. Classification of Cyanobacteria Kingdom: Monera Division: Eubacteria Class: Cyanobacteria Examples: Nostoc sp., Oscillotoria sp., Spirulina …

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Spoilage of Milk

Definition: Any undesirable change or deterioration in the quality of milk refers as Spoilage of milk. These changes can be like change in appearance, colour, odour, taste etc. Milk contains complex biochemical composition and high water activity, and this provides an excellent culture medium for the growth and multiplication of microorganisms which leads to serious …

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Difference Between Antigen and Antibody

Difference between antigen and antibody is mainly due to the significant differences between the following factors like functional role, specificity factor and foreignness. Functional role: Antigen incites the immune system, whereas the antibody produced in response to a specific antigen. Specificity factor: Both antigen and antibody are specific, but the specificity of antigen is due …

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Staining

Definition: Staining is a supplementary method that gives divergence to the microscopic image for better vision under the microscope. It is a technique that is widely used for the examination of cells, tissues and cellular components. There are a variety of staining methods like simple, differential and special staining that are used in labs to …

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