Microbiology

Endospore Staining

Endospore staining is a type of special staining method, which makes use of differential staining procedure to highlight the presence or absence of endospores. For the staining of endospores, the first article was published by Dorner in the year 1922. Later, the Dorner method of staining endospores has been modified by two scientists, Schaeffar and …

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Capsule Staining

Capsule staining is one of the staining methods, which creates contrast in the microscopic image either by staining bacterial cells and background or staining the capsule only. Therefore, capsule staining can be done by two methods, namely positive and negative staining methods. Positive staining method either stain a capsule only or stain both the capsule …

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Acetic Acid Production

Acetic acid production refers to the production of acetic acid or vinegar through two steps modification via two different microorganisms. The first step involves the conversion of sugar into ethanol by the yeast (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In the second step, oxidation of ethanol into acetic acid takes place by the bacteria like Acetobacter, Gluconabacter sp. …

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Nucleotide

A nucleotide is a compound, which can form a polynucleotide chain by the union of nitrogenous bases and sugar-phosphate group. Monomers of nucleotide units are connected via a covalent phosphodiester bond. Nitrogenous bases, i.e. purines and pyrimidine, are attached via weak hydrogen bonds. The bases link with a deoxyribose pentose sugar via an N-glycosidic bond. …

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