Science

Respiration in Plants

Respiration in plants refers to a process in which a plant utilizes atmospheric oxygen to oxidize glucose and other respiratory substrates like fats or proteins. Respiratory substrates are high energy biomolecules that produce energy, carbon dioxide, and water due to the C-C bond breaks. Plants undergo cellular respiration under the presence or absence of light. …

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Germination of Plant

Germination of a plant is a phenomenon in which a seed germinates to form a new seeding or a plant. The germination process results in the emergence of the radicle (primary root) and plumule (primary shoot). Before germination, the seed remains dormant in the soil. Under favourable conditions (optimum temperature, oxygen, light, water etc.), a seed …

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Anther

The anther is a part of the flower’s male reproductive system or stamen. It carries the reproductive structures or the male gametes (pollen grains), which germinate and cause fertilization of an ovule. A male reproductive part of a flower typically consists of two elements (filament and anther). A filament appears as a long, slender and …

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Pollination in Flower

Pollination in a flower is a transferring mechanism of pollen grains from the anther (flower’s male reproductory part or stamen) to the stigma (flower’s female reproductive part or gynoecium). It is the primary stage that results in the flower’s fertilization. The passage of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma occurs via pollinating agents …

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Bilayer Cell Membrane

The bilayer cell membrane is a membranous structure, which consists of two phospholipid layers. Thus, a cell membrane also refers to a phospholipid bilayer membrane composed of many phospholipid molecules. A structure of a phospholipid molecule consists of a hydrophilic head, a phosphate molecule, a glycerol molecule and two hydrophobic fatty acid tail. The phospholipid …

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Gynoecium

Gynoecium, carpel or pistil primarily comprises three structures, namely stigma, style and ovary. It accounts for the flower’s female reproductive part that carries the female gametes or ovules within an ovary. Towards the gynoecium base, the pedicle or thalamus provides support to the female reproductive part and the other parts as well. An ovary is …

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Riboflavin

Riboflavin or Vitamin B-2 belongs to the Vitamin-B group, which are of eight kinds viz. vitamin B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, B-7, B-9, B-12. It plays a crucial role in converting and breaking down protein, fats, and carbohydrates to produce energy. Vitamin B-2 converts complex carbohydrates, proteins and fat into simple sugar, amino acids and …

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Xanthophyll

Xanthophyll is a type of accessory pigment or phytochemicals, which belongs to the class of “Carotenoids”. In many vascular plants and algae, xanthophylls act as the light-harvesting protein complexes. Xanthophylls are rich in antioxidants, which prevent the cells from damaging. In photosynthetic eukaryotes, the xanthophylls are usually bound to the chlorophyll molecules. Xanthophylls are the …

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